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Mikhailova, J. Kalashnikov, A. Scandium of the Kovdor baddeleyite apatite magnetite deposit Murmansk region, Russia : mineralogy, spatial distribution, and potential source. Abstract: The Kovdor baddeleyite-apatite-magnetite deposit in the Kovdor phoscorite-carbonatite pipe is situated in the western part of the zoned alkali-ultrabasic Kovdor intrusion NW part of the Fennoscandinavian shield; Murmansk Region, Russia. We describe major intrusive and metasomatic rocks of the pipe and its surroundings using a new classification of phoscorite-carbonatite series rocks, consistent with the IUGS recommendation.

The gradual zonation of the pipe corresponds to the sequence of mineral crystallization forsterite-hydroxylapatite-magnetite-calcite. Crystal morphology, grain size, characteristic inclusions, and composition of the rock-forming and accessory minerals display the same spatial zonation pattern, as do the three minerals of economic interest, i.

The content of Sr, rare earth elements REEs , and Ba in hydroxylapatite tends to increase gradually at the expense of Si, Fe, and Mg from early apatite-forsterite phoscorite margins of the pipe through carbonate-free, magnetite-rich phoscorite to carbonate-rich phoscorite and phoscorite-related carbonatite inner part.

Magnetite displays a trend of increasing V and Ca and decreasing Ti, Mn, Si, Cr, Sc, and Zn from the margins to the central part of the pipe; its grain size initially increases from the wall rocks to the inner part and then decreases towards the central part; characteristic inclusions in magnetite are geikielite within the marginal zone of the phoscorite-carbonatite pipe, spinel within the intermediate zone, and ilmenite within the inner zone.

The zoning pattern seems to have formed due to both cooling and rapid degassing pressure drop of a fluid-rich magmatic column and subsequent pneumatolytic and hydrothermal processes.

Ivanyuk, G. Economic minerals of the Kovdor baddeleyite apatite magnetite deposit, Russia: mineralogy, spatial distribution and ore processing optimization. The marginal zone of the pipe consists of apatite -forsterite phoscorite carrying fine grains of Ti-Mn-Si-rich magnetite with ilmenite exsolution lamellae, fine grains of Fe-Mg-rich apatite and finest grains of baddeleyite, enriched in Mg, Fe, Si and Mn. The intermediate zone accommodates carbonate-free magnetite-rich phoscorites that carry medium to coarse grains of Mg-Al-rich magnetite with exsolution inclusions of spinel, medium-grained pure apatite and baddeleyite.

The axial zone hosts carbonate-rich phoscorites and phoscorite-related carbonatites bearing medium-grained Ti-V-Ca-rich magnetite with exsolution inclusions of geikielite-ilmenite, fine grains of Ba-Sr-Ln-rich apatite and comparatively large grains of baddeleyite, enriched in Hf, Ta, Nb and Sc.

The collected data enable us to predict such important mineralogical characteristics of the multicomponent ore as chemical composition and grain size of economic and associated minerals, presence of contaminating inclusions, etc. We have identified potential areas of maximum concentration of such by-products as scandium, niobium and hafnium in baddeleyite and REEs in apatite.

Economic minerals of the Kovdor baddeleyite apatite magnetite deposit, Russia: mineralogy, spatial distribution and ore procesing optimization. Rare earth deposits of the Murmansk region, Russia – a review. Abstract: This paper reviews the available information on the geology, mineralogy, and resources of the significant rare earth element REE deposits and occurrences in the Murmansk Region, northwest Russia.

The measured and indicated REE2O3 resources of all deposits in the region total The most important resources occur in 1 the currently mined Khibiny titanite-apatite deposits, and 2 the Lovozero loparite-eudialyte deposit. The Kovdor baddeleyite-apatite-magnetite deposit is a potentially important resource of scandium. These deposits all have polymetallic ores, i. With the exception of the Afrikanda perovskite-magnetite deposit LREE in perovskite and the Kovdor baddeleyite-apatite-magnetite deposit scandium in baddelyite , carbonatite-bearing complexes of the Murmansk Region appear to have limited potential for REE by-products.

The sound transport, energy, and mining infrastructure of the region are important factors that will help ensure future production of the REE. Panikorovskii, T. Zr-rich eudialyte from the Lovozero peralkaline massif, Kola Peninsula, Russia. Eudialyte from the Alluaiv Mt. The detailed study of the chemical composition microprobe analyses of EGMs from the drill cores of the Mt. Sun, J. The origin of low-MgO eclogite xenoliths from Obnazhennaya kimberlite, Siberian craton.

These eclogites contain two types of compositionally distinct garnet: granular coarse garnet, and garnet exsolution lamellae and fine-grained garnet in clinopyroxene. The former record higher temperatures at lower pressures than the latter, which record the last stage of equilibrium at moderate pressure-temperature conditions 2. Although derived from the garnet stability field, these rocks have low-pressure cumulate protoliths containing plagioclase, olivine, and clinopyroxene as reflected by pronounced positive Eu and Sr anomalies in all eclogites, and low heavy rare earth element HREE contents in both minerals and reconstructed bulk rocks for a number of samples.

Major elements, transition metals, and the HREE compositions of the reconstructed whole rocks are analogous to modern oceanic gabbro cumulates. Despite geochemical signatures supporting an oceanic crust origin, mantle-like? The origin of low-MgO eclogite xenoliths from Obnazhennaya kimberlite, Siberia craton.

Abstract: The petrology, mineral major and trace element concentrations, and garnet oxygen isotopic composition of low-MgO wt. These eclogites equilibrated at moderate pressure-temperature conditions 2. C at the time of entrainment. We therefore suggest that the Obnazhennaya low-MgO eclogites may represent the gabbroic section of subducted or foundered basaltic crust that underwent continued partial melting processes at high pressures where garnet was the main residual phase.

Kostrovitsky, S. The exceptionally fresh Udachnaya -East kimberlite: evidence for brine and evaporite contamination. The nature of phlogopite – ilmenite and ilmenite parageneses in deep seated xenoliths from Udachnaya kimberlite pipe. Abstract: The article describes the petrography and mineralogy of xenoliths ilmenite-phlogopite containing deformed and granular peridotites from the Udachnaya-Eastern pipe.

The age of pholopite porphyroclast from the studied deformed xenoliths matches with age of Phl megacryst and itself hosted kimberlites from Udachnaya pipe indicating the following processes closed in time: 1 crystallization of the low-Cr megacryst association; 2 deformation of rocks on the mantle lithosphere-asthenosphere border during the kimberlite-forming cycle; 3 formation of protokimberlite melts. Regularities of spatial association of major endogenous uranium deposits and kimberlitic dykes in the uranium ore regions of the Ukrainian Shield.

Ashchepkov, I. Incompatible element enriched mantle lithosphere beneath kimberlitic pipes in Priazovie Ukrainian shield: volatile enriched focused melt flow and connection to mature crust?

Abstract: Major, minor and trace element compositions of mantle xenocrysts from Devonian kimberlite pipes in the Priazovie give an insight into the mantle structure beneath the SE Ukranian Shield and its evolution.

Garnets yield low temperature conditions as determined by monomineral thermobarometry. The mantle lithosphere is sharply divided at 4. Seven layers are detected: Ist layer at 2. IIId at 4. IVth at 3. Garnets from 6. A possible reason for LILE HFSE and enrichment of the upper part of the mantle is subduction metasomatsm in Archaean times with participation of mature continental sediments activated by plumes at 1. Ashchepkov, V.

Incompatible element-enriched mantle lithosphere beneath kimberlitic pipes in Proazovie, Ukrainian shield: volatile enriched focused melt flow and connection to mature crust? Metasomatic features in the mantle xenoliths from Obnajennaya kimberlite pipe – the mineral composition evidence.

Abstract: The modal metasomatic alteration for lithosphere mantle may be investigated using mantle xenoliths from kimberlite pipes. The mantle xenoliths from upper-Jurassic Obnajennaya kimberlite pipe Kuoika field, Yakutia were studied. Three main xenoliths groups in Obnajennaya pipe were distinguished based on the petrographic and geochemical features: 1. The clinopyroxene distribution curves demonstrate the wide range of values and altered samples show higher content HFSE group elements that primary clinopyroxene.

The increasing of HFSE and rare earth element concentrations can also be traced by the amphibole chemical composition.

The high? O18 for garnet and clinopyroxene 5. This group are charactetrized are ferrous mineral composition. Silicate melt and fluid inclusions in olivine phenocryst from the Gataia lamproite Banat, Romania.

A melt evolution model for Kerimasi volcano, Tanzania: evidence from carbonate melt inclusions in jacupirangite. Petrographic observations and geochemical data show that during jacupirangite crystallization, a CaO-rich and alkali-“poor” carbonate melt relative to Oldoinyo Lengai natrocarbonatite existed and was entrapped in the precipitating magnetite, forming primary melt inclusions, and was also enclosed in previously crystallized clinopyroxene as secondary melt inclusions.

The composition of the trapped carbonate melts in magnetite and clinopyroxene are very similar to the parental melt of Kerimasi calciocarbonatite; i. Significant compositional variation is shown by the major minerals of Kerimasi plutonic rocks afrikandite, jacupirangite and calciocarbonatite. Magnetite and clinopyroxene in the jacupirangite are typically transitional in composition between those of afrikandite and calciocarbonatite.

These data suggest that the jacupirangite represents an intermediate stage between the formation of afrikandite and calciocarbonatite. Jacupirangite most probably formed when immiscible silicate and carbonate melts separated from the afrikandite body, although the carbonate melt was not separated completely from the silicate melt fraction. Volatiles were incorporated principally in nyerereite, shortite, burbankite, nahcolite and sulfohalite as identified by Raman spectrometry.

These extremely unstable minerals cannot be found in the bulk rock, because of alteration by secondary processes. On the basis of these data, an evolutionary model is developed for Kerimasi plutonic rocks.

The composition of the trapped carbonate melts in magnetite and clinopyroxene is very similar to the parental melt of Kerimasi calciocarbonatite; i. A melt evolution for Kerimasi volcano, Tanzania: evidence from carbonate melt inclusions in jacupirangite. Abstract: The use of confocal HR-Raman mapping opens new perspectives in studying melt inclusions.

Our major goal is to show advantages of this powerful technique through case studies carried out on alkaline and carbonatite rocks of Kerimasi volcano East African Rift. Raman spectrometry is one of the few methods that enable qualitative nondestructive analysis of both solid and fluid phases, therefore it is widely used for the identification of minerals and volatiles within melt and fluid inclusions. For better understanding of petrogenetic processes in carbonatite systems it is essential to find all mineral phases in the melt inclusions trapped in intrusive or volcanic rocks.

Previous Raman spectroscopic point measurements in melt inclusions revealed the presence of daughter phases e. Raman 3D mapping were applied on unheated multiphase melt inclusions of intrusive and volcanic rocks with high spatial resolution XY plane DS Geological setting and petrographic diversity of the lamproite dykes at the northern and north eastern margin of the Cuddapah Basin, southern India. New dat a on the age of the concentrically zoned dunite pyroxenite intrusions in the Ural platiniferous belt.

Depletion of niobium relative to other highly incompatible elements by melt rock reaction in the upper mantle. Gaubas, E. Lateral scan profiles of the recombination parameters correlated with distribution of grown-in impurities in HPHT diamond. The internal structure of yellow cuboid diamonds from alluvial placers of the northeastern Siberian platform. Abstract: Yellow cuboid diamonds are commonly found in diamondiferous alluvial placers of the Northeastern Siberian platform. Most of these crystals have typical resorption features and do not preserve primary growth morphology.

The resorption leads to an evolution from an originally cubic shape to a rounded tetrahexahedroid. Specific fibrous or columnar internal structure of yellow cuboid diamonds has been revealed. Most of them are strongly deformed. Rare earth elements in the metamorphic rock complexes of the Key vyastructure of the Kola Peninsula. Kupriyanov, I. Homogenization of carbonate bearing Micro inclusions in diamond at P-T parameters of the upper mantle.

The results mainly show that the carbonate phases, the daughter phases in partially crystallized microinclusions in diamonds, may undergo phase transformations under the mantle P-T conditions. Most likely, partial melting and further dissolution of dolomite in the carbonate-silicate melt homogenization of inclusions occur in inclusions. However, it should be noted that the effect of selective capture of inclusions with partial loss of volatiles in relation to the composition of the crystallization medium is not excluded during the growth.

Nadolly, V. Formation features of N3V centers in diamonds from the Kholomolokh placer in the Northeast Siberian craton. Abstract: In recent years, despite significant progress in the development of new methods for the synthesis of diamond crystals and in their post-growth treatment, many questions remain unclear about the conditions for the formation and degradation of aggregate impurity nitrogen forms.

Meanwhile, they are very important for understanding evaluating the origin, age, and post-growth conditions of natural diamonds. In the present work, an attempt was made to analyze the causes of the formation of high concentrations of N3V centers in natural IaB-type diamonds from the Kholomolokh placer the Northeast Siberian craton. The possibility of decay of B centers during the plastic deformation of diamonds is analyzed and experiments on the high-temperature annealing of diamonds containing B centers are reported.

The formation of N3V centers during the destruction of the B centers at high-pressure annealing of crystals has been established by experiment. It is assumed that, in the post-growth period, diamond crystals were exposed to tectono-thermal stages of raising the superplumes of the Earth’s crust of the Siberian craton.

Eclogitic diamonds from variable crustal protoliths in the northeastern Siberian Craton: trace elements and coupled Delta13C-delta signatures in diamonds and garnet inclusions. Silicate melt inclusions in diamonds of eclogite paragenesis from placers on the northeastern Siberian craton. Abstract: New findings of silicate-melt inclusions in two alluvial diamonds from the Kholomolokh placer, northeastern Siberian Platform are reported.

Raman spectral analysis revealed that the composite inclusions consist of clinopyroxene and silicate glass. Hopper crystals of clinopyroxene were observed using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectroscopic analyses; these are different in composition from the omphacite inclusions that co-exist in the same diamonds. These composite inclusions are primary melt that partially crystallised at the cooling stage.

Hopper crystals of clinopyroxene imply rapid cooling rates, likely related to the uplift of crystals in the kimberlite melt. The reconstructed composition of such primary melts suggests that they were formed as the product of metasomatised mantle. Mixed habit type Ib-IaA diamond from an Udachnaya eclogite. Abstract: The variety of morphology and properties of natural diamonds reflects variations in the conditions of their formation in different mantle environments.

This study presents new data on the distribution of impurity centers in diamond type Ib-IaA from xenolith of bimineral eclogite from the Udachnaya kimberlite pipe. The high content of non-aggregated nitrogen C defects in the studied diamonds indicates their formation shortly before the stage of transportation to the surface by the kimberlite melt.

The observed sectorial heterogeneity of the distribution of C- and A-defects indicates that aggregation of nitrogen in the octahedral sectors occurs faster than in the cuboid sectors. Local variations in carbon isotopes and nitrogen contents in diamonds from placers of the northeastern portion of the Siberian Platform.

Carbon isotopes and nitrogen contents in placer diamonds from the NE Siberian craton: implications for diamond origins. Diamondiferous subcontinental lithospheric mantle of the northeastern Siberian craton: evidence from mineral inclusions in alluvial diamonds. Diamondiferous subcontinental lithospheric mantle of the northeastern Siberian Craton: evidence from mineral inclusions in alluvial diamonds. Kapchan Fold Belt Olenek Province. Regular cuboid diamonds from placers on the northeastern Siberian platform.

Abstract: Alluvial placers of the northeastern Siberian Platform are characterized by a specific diamond population: regular cuboids, forming a continuous color series from yellowish-green to yellow and dark orange. This is the first comprehensive study of a large number of cuboid diamonds focusing on their morphology, N content and aggregation state, photoluminescence, C isotopic composition and inclusions.

The cuboids are cubic i. The cathodolominescence images and the birefringence patterns show that many cuboid diamonds record deformation. The cuboid diamonds are characterized by unusual FTIR spectra with the presence of C- single nitrogen atom and A- pair of neighbour nitrogen atoms centers, and two centers of unknown origin, termed X and Y.

The presence of single substitutional nitrogen defects C centers in all cuboid diamonds testifies either storage in the mantle at relatively cool conditions or formation just prior to eruption of their host kimberlites. The cuboid diamonds show a wide range of carbon isotope compositions from mantle-like values towards strongly 13C depleted compositions? Combined with the finding of an eclogitic sulfide inclusion, the light carbon isotope compositions link the formation of the studied cuboids to deeply subducted basic protoliths, i.

Spectroscopic evidence of the origin of brown and pink diamonds family from Internatsionalnaya kimberlite pipe Siberian craton. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals , Vol. Abstract: New spectroscopic data were obtained to distinguish the specific features of brown and pink diamonds from Internatsionalnaya kimberlite pipe Siberian craton.

It is shown that pink and brown samples differ markedly in the content and degree of aggregation of nitrogen defects. Pink diamonds generally have higher nitrogen content and a lower aggregation state compared to brown samples, which often show significant variations in nitrogen content and aggregation state between different growth zones.

The and nm luminescent centres, which are signs of deformed brown diamonds, are absent or of low intensity in pink diamonds implying that high nitrogen content predominantly in A form in the pink diamonds had stiffened the diamonds against natural plastic deformation.

The GR1 centre, formed by a neutrally charged vacancy, was observed only in pink diamonds, which may be due to their formation and storage in the mantle at lower-temperature conditions. Mineral inclusions indicate peridotitic and eclogitic paragenesis for studied brown and pink diamonds, respectively. Zemnukhov, A. Subduction related population of diamonds in Yakutian placers, northeastern Siberian platform.

Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology , Vol. Abstract: The 35 paired diamond intergrowths of rounded colorless transparent and gray opaque crystals from the placers of northeastern Siberian Platform were investigated. The majority of studied samples have uniform ranges of nitrogen content at. These characteristics pointing towards subducted material are possible sources for their genesis.

Two samples consist of a gray opaque crystal with the subduction-related characteristics? The higher degree of nitrogen aggregation in the crystals with mantle-like characteristics testifies their longer storage in the mantle conditions. These samples reflect multistage diamond growth history and directly indicate the mixing of mantle and subduction carbon sources at the basement of subcontinental lithospheric mantle of northeastern Siberian Platform.

Zedgenizov, D. Diamond forming HDFs tracking episodic mantle metasomatism beneath Nyurbinskaya kimberlite pipe Siberian craton. Abstract: We present a new dataset on the composition of high-density fluids HDFs in cloudy n? These diamonds represent different populations each showing distinct growth histories. The cores of coated diamonds display multiple growth stages and contrasting sources of carbon.

Fibrous coats and cuboid diamonds have similar carbon isotopes and nitrogen systematics, suggesting their formation in the last metasomatic events related to kimberlite magmatism, as is common for most such diamonds worldwide. The HDFs in most of these diamonds span a wide range from low-Mg carbonatitic to hydrous silicic compositions. The major- and trace-element variations suggest that the sources for such HDFs range in composition between the depleted mantle and more fertile mantle reservoirs.

Hydrous-silicic HDFs could originate from a 13C-enriched source, which originates through subduction of crustal metasedimentary material. Percolation of such HDFs through carbonated eclogites and peridotites facilitates the formation of cuboid diamonds and fibrous coats in the mantle section beneath the corresponding area of the Siberian craton. Cloudy diamonds represent an apparently older population, reflecting continuous diamond formation predominantly from high-Mg carbonatitic HDFs that caused discrete episodes of diamond precipitation.

Their high Mg and enrichment in incompatible elements support a metasomatized peridotitic source for these HDFs. Alkaline ultramafic rocks in the pipes of the Tersky coast of Kola Peninsula- a new type of Paleozoic magmatism. Alkalic ultramafics in diatremes on the Terskiy coast of the KolaPeninsula: a new type of Paleozoic magmatism. Diamonds and associated minerals in kimberlites and loose sediments of Tersky shore Kola Peninsula.

Buikin, A. Distribution of mantle and atmospheric argon in mantle xenoliths from western Arabian Peninsula: constraints on timing and composition of metasomatizing agents Solomatova, N. Equation of state and spin crossover of Mg,Fe O at high pressure, with implications for explaining topographic relief at the core mantle boundary. Kolonrect Kolonwirt. Results of the preliminary geological and mineralogical investigations for the discovery of diamonds and precious stones in the Qishon basin area.

Simakov, S. Assessment of Diamondiferous perspectives of east European Platform according to the dat a of sounding On the robustness of estimates of mechanical anisotropy in the continental lithosphere: a North American case study and global reanalysis.

Plethean, J. Madagascar’s escape from Africa: a resolution plate reconstruction for the Western Somali Basin and for supercontinent dispersal. Abstract: Accurate reconstructions of the dispersal of supercontinent blocks are essential for testing continental breakup models. Here, we provide a new plate tectonic reconstruction of the opening of the Western Somali Basin during the breakup of East and West Gondwana. The model is constrained by a new comprehensive set of spreading lineaments, detected in this heavily sedimented basin using a novel technique based on directional derivatives of free-air gravity anomalies.

Vertical gravity gradient and free-air gravity anomaly maps also enable the detection of extinct mid-ocean ridge segments, which can be directly compared to several previous ocean magnetic anomaly interpretations of the Western Somali Basin. The best matching interpretations have basin symmetry around the M0 anomaly; these are then used to temporally constrain our plate tectonic reconstruction.

The reconstruction supports a tight fit for Gondwana fragments prior to breakup, and predicts that the continent-ocean transform margin lies along the Rovuma Basin, not along the Davie Fracture Zone DFZ as commonly thought. According to our reconstruction, the DFZ represents a major ocean-ocean fracture zone formed by the coalescence of several smaller fracture zones during evolving plate motions as Madagascar drifted southwards, and offshore Tanzania is an obliquely rifted, rather than transform, margin.

New seismic reflection evidence for oceanic crust inboard of the DFZ strongly supports these conclusions. Our results provide important new constraints on the still enigmatic driving mechanism of continental rifting, the nature of the lithosphere in the Western Somali Basin, and its resource potential. X-ray tomographic study of spatial distribution of Micro inclusions in natural fibrous diamonds. Paleoproterozoic Ma rift related volcanism in the Hekla Sund region, field occurrence, geochemistry.

Age of rocks, structures and metamorphism in the Nagssugtoqidian Mobile belt – fold and lead isotope evidence. Archean and Proterzoic crust in Northwest Greenland: evidence from Rubidium-Strontium whole rock age determinations. Geochemistry, tectonic setting, poly orogenic history of Paleoproterozoic basement rocks from Caledonian belt.

Geochemistry and tectonic significance of peridotitic and metakomatiitic rocks from Us suit area. Upton, B. The Mesoproterozoic Zig-Zag Dal basalts and associated intrusions of eastern North Greenland: mantle plume lithosphere interaction. Micro-Raman spectroscopy assessment of chemical compounds of mantle clinopyroxenes. Abstract: The composition of clinopyroxenes is indicative for chemical and physical properties of mantle substrates.

The chemical composition of studied clinopyroxenes shows wide variations indicating their origin in different mantle lithologies. The peak position of the stretching vibration mode? These correlations may be used for rough estimation of these compounds using the non-destructive Raman spectroscopy technique. Sharygin, I. Relics of deep alkali-carbonate melt in the mantle xenolith from the Komosomolskaya-Magnitnaya kimberlite pipe Upper Muna field, Yakutia.

Abstract: The results of study secondary crystallized melt inclusions in olivine of a sheared peridotite xenolith from the Komsomolskaya-Magnitnaya kimberlite pipe Upper Muna field, Yakutia are reported. The abundance of alkali carbonates in the inclusions indicates the alkali-carbonate composition of the melt. Previously, identical inclusions of alkali-carbonate melt were reported in olivine of sheared peridotites from the Udachnaya pipe Daldyn field.

Melt inclusions in sheared peridotites are the relics of a crystallized kimberlite melt that penetrated into peridotites either during the transport of xenoliths to the surface or directly in the mantle shortly prior to the entrapment of xenoliths by the kimberlite magma.

If the second scenario took place, the finds of alkali-carbonate melt inclusions in sheared peridotites carried from different mantle depths in the Udachnaya and Komsomolskaya-Magnitnaya kimberlite pipes indicate a large-scale metasomatic alteration of the lithospheric mantle of the Siberian Craton by alkaline-carbonate melts, which preceded the kimberlite magmatism.

However, regardless of which of the two models proposed above is correct, the results reported here support the alkali-carbonate composition of primary kimberlite melts. Perepelov, A. Keulen, N. Formation, origin and geographic typing of corundum ruby and pink sapphire from the Fiskenaesst complex, Greenland.

Abstract: Metamorphic petrology observations on rubies found in-situ in their host-rock are combined with geochemical measurements and optical microscopy observations on the same rubies, with the aim of connecting the ruby-forming metamorphic reaction to a unique fingerprint for these minerals. Isochemical pressure-temperature sections were calculated based on electron microprobe and whole-rock geochemistry analyses, and compared to field observations.

In order to establish the unique fingerprint for this ruby-bearing ultramafic complex, laser-ablation inductively-coupled-plasma mass-spectrometry trace-element measurements, oxygen isotope compositions, optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were applied.

Results for other Greenland localities are presented and discussed as well. Even though these are derived from ultramafic rock settings too, they record different trace-element ratios and oxygen isotope values, resulting from variations in the Archaean ruby-forming reaction.

Melting of iron silicon alloy up to the core mantle boundary pressure: implications to the thermal structure of the Earth’s core. The reactions in the MgCO3-SiO2 system in the slabs subducted into the lower mantle and formation of deep diamond. Abstract: Diamond is an evidence for carbon existing in the deep Earth.

Some diamonds are considered to have originated at various depth ranges from the mantle transition zone to the lower mantle. These diamonds are expected to carry significant information about the deep Earth. GPa and 3,? K using a double sided laser-heated diamond anvil cell combined with in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction.

These observations suggested that the reaction of the MgCO3 phase II with SiO2 causes formation of super-deep diamond in cold slabs descending into the deep lower mantle. Tanaka, R. The sound velocity of wustite at high pressures: implications for low-velocity anomalies at the base of the lower mantle.

Abstract: The longitudinal sound velocity VP and the density? GPa and temperatures of up to ? K using both inelastic X-ray scattering and X-ray diffraction combined with a laser-heated diamond-anvil cell. The linear relationship between VP and? Osovetskii, B. Trace element analysis and U-Pb geochronology of perovskite and its importance for tracking unexposed rare metal and diamond deposits. Significance of halogens F, Cl in kimberlite melts: insights from mineralogy and melt inclusions in the Roger pipe Ekati, Canada.

Abstract: The abundance and distribution of halogens F, Cl are rarely recorded in kimberlites and therefore their petrogenetic significance is poorly constrained. Halogens are usually present in kimberlite rocks in the structure of phlogopite and apatite, but their original concentrations are never fully retained due to the effects of alteration. To provide new constraints on the origin and evolution of halogens in kimberlites and their melts, we present a detailed study of the petrography and geochemistry of the late-Cretaceous Group-I or archetypal Roger kimberlite Ekati cluster, Canada.

The studied samples contain abundant anhedral-to-euhedral olivine which is set in a crystalline groundmass of monticellite, phlogopite, apatite, spinel i. The Roger kimberlite is characterised by the highest recorded F-content up to ppm of the Ekati cluster kimberlites, which is reflected by the preservation of F-rich phases, where bultfonteinite Ca4 Si2O7 F, OH 2 and fluorite commonly replace olivine.

In order to examine the composition and evolution of the kimberlite melt prior to post-magmatic processes, we studied melt inclusions in olivine, Cr-spinel, monticellite and apatite. Comparisons between halogens and other trace elements of similar compatibility i. Abersteiner, A. Monticellite in group I kimberlites: implications for evolution of parallel melts and post emplacement CO2 degassing.

Leslie, Pipe 1. To provide new constraints on the petrogenesis of monticellite and its potential significance to kimberlite melt evolution, we examine the petrography and geochemistry of the minimally altered hypabyssal monticellite-rich Leslie Canada and Pipe 1 Finland kimberlites.

Integrating magnetic and gravity for mapping the Earth structure using color scheme: a case study of Botswana. Xenoliths in kimberlite, melilitite and carbonatite dykes from the East Sayan foothill carbonatite complex. Age significance of uranium-thorium-lead zircon dat a from early Archean rocks of West Greenland – a reassessment based. Westward continuation of the craton-Limpopo Belt tectonic break in Zimbabwe and new age constraints.. Westward continuation of the craton-Limpopo Belt tectonic break and new age constraints of the thrusting.

An exsolution origin for Archaean mantle garnet. Abstract: It is now well established that the cratonic sub-continental lithospheric mantle SCLM represents a residue of extensively melted fertile peridotite. The widespread occurrence of garnet in the Archaean SCLM remains a paradox because many experiments agree that garnet is exhausted beyond c.

It has been suggested that garnet may have formed by exsolution from Al-rich orthopyroxene [1,2,3]. However, the few examples of putative garnet exsolution in cratonic samples remain exotic and have not afforded a link to garnet that occurs as distinct grains in granular harzburgite. Garnet lamellae within the megacryst show crystallographic continuity and have a strong fabric relative to the host orthopyroxene, strongly indicating that the megacryst formed by exsolution.

Garnet lamellae are sub-calcic Cr-pyropes with sinusoidal rare earth element patterns, while the orthopyroxene host is high-Mg enstatite; the reconstructed precursor is clinoestatite. The megacryst shows evidence for disintegrating into granular peridotite, and garnet and orthopyroxene within the granular peridotite are texturally and chemically identical to equivalent phases in the megacryst.

Collectively, this evidence supports a common origin for the granular and exsolved portions of the sample. The compositions of the exsolved Cr pyrope and enstatite are typical of harzburgites and depleted lherzolites from the SCLM. Furthermore, garnet inclusions within orthopyroxene in several granular peridotites exhibit the same fabric as those in the exsolved megacryst.

We hypothesise that clinoenstatite was a common phase in cratonic SCLM and that exsolution is the likely origin of many sub-calcic garnets in depleted peridotites.

Growth of subcontinental lithospheric mantle beneath Zimbabwe started at or before 3. Age significance of uranium-thorium-lead-zircon dat a from early Archean rocks of West Greenland – a reassessment.. Fluid mobile trace element constraints on the role of slab melting and implications for Archean crustal growth models.

Lamproites from Gaussberg, Antartica: possible transition zone melts of Archean subducted sediments. Lamproites from Gaussberg, Antarctica: possible transition zone melts of Archean subducted sediments. A refined solution to Earth’s hidden niobium: implications for evolution of continental crust and mode of core formation. Mantle and crustal processes in the Hadean and Archean: evidence for the onset of subduction at 3. A review of isoptopic and trace element evidence for mantle and crustal processes in the Hadean and Archean: implications for the onset of plate tectonic subduction.

Majoritic garnet: a new approach to pressure estimation of shock events in meteorites and the encapsulation of sub-lithospheric inclusions in diamonds. On the track of the elusive Sudbury impact: geochemical evidence for a chondrite or comet bolide. Differentiated impact melt sheets may be potential source of Hadean detrital zircon. Abstract: Constraining the origin and history of very ancient detrital zircons has unique potential for furthering our knowledge of Earth’s very early crust and Hadean geodynamics.

This could possibly indicate wet minimum-melting conditions producing granitic melts, implying very different Hadean terrestrial geology from that of other rocky planets. Here we report the first comprehensive ion microprobe study of zircons from a transect through the differentiated Sudbury impact melt sheet Ontario, Canada.

The new zircon Ti results and corresponding Tzirxtln fully overlap with those of the Hadean zircon population. Previous studies that measured Ti in impact melt sheet zircons did not find this wide range because they analyzed samples only from a restricted portion of the melt sheet and because they used laser ablation analyses that can overestimate true Ti content. It is important to note that internal differentiation of the impact melt is likely a prerequisite for the observed low Tzirxtln in zircons from the most evolved rocks.

On Earth, melt sheet differentiation is strongest in subaqueous impact basins. Thus, not all Hadean detrital zircon with low Ti necessarily formed during melting at plate boundaries, but at least some could also have crystallized in melt sheets caused by intense meteorite bombardment of the early, hydrosphere-covered protocrust.

Abstract: Olivine offers huge, largely untapped, potential for improving our understanding of magmatic and metasomatic processes. In particular, a wealth of information is contained in rare earth element REE mass fractions, which are well studied in other minerals. However, REE data for olivine are scarce, reflecting the difficulty associated with determining mass fractions in the low ng g? Empirical partition coefficients D values calculated using the new olivine compositions agree with experimental values, indicating that the measured REEs are structurally bound in the olivine crystal lattice, rather than residing in micro-inclusions.

We conducted an initial survey of REE contents of olivine from mantle, metamorphic, magmatic and meteorite samples. REE mass fractions vary from 0. Heavy REEs vary from low mass fractions in meteoritic samples, through variably enriched peridotitic olivine to high mass fractions in magmatic olivines, with fayalitic olivines showing the highest levels. Why Archean cratons differ from younger continental lithosphere. Abstract: The most outstanding features of Archaean cratons are their extraordinary thickness and enduring longevity.

Seismically, Archaean cratonic fragments are sharplybounded deep roots of buoyant cold lithospheric mantle, clearly distinguishable from non-cratonic lithosphere.

The age of diamond inclusions and the Os-isotope composition of deep cratonic xenoliths support a model of coeval formation of the crustal and residual mantle portions. Archaean and post-Archaean crust also differ, not in bulk composition, but in crustal architecture. Key drivers of crustal rearrangment were the radioactive heat-producers U, Th and K. In the early Earth, high radioactive heat production led to self-organisation into evolved, potassic upper and refractory lower crust.

The lag time between crust formation and reorganisation was much shorter than today. An additional factor contributing to cratonic restructuring was the emplacement of dense supracrustal rocks in ensialic greenstone belts, leading to gravitational inversion. The dome and keel architecture of Archaean cratons was thus driven by crustal radioactive heat and high temperature mantle melting, yielding dense, low viscosity lavas piling up at surface.

A pleasing complementary observation from cratonic mantle roots is that refractory mantle nodules also suggest very high degrees of melting and extraction. With higher degree and depth of melting, a thicker and severely depleted bouyant cratonic residue was formed, perfectly equipped to preserve the Archaean crustal record.

However, there are significant inconsistencies in this otherwise convincing line of reasoning. They include: Archaean crust is not especially thick, the dunites expected after very high degree melting are rare, many cratonic harzburgites are much richer in orthopyroxene than predicted [1], and cratonic harzburgites often contain garnet.

Finding a solution to these issues has important ramifications for secular evolution of the continents and thermal evolution of the mantle. In this presentation, I will contrast the various proposed solutions, including purging of surprisingly carbonated ancient mantle [e. Juvenile crust formation in the Zimbabwean Craton deduced from the O-Hf isotopic record 3. Abstract: Hafnium and oxygen isotopic compositions measured in-situ on U-Pb dated zircon from Archaean sedimentary successions belonging to the 2.

Microstructural and compositional criteria were used to minimize effects arising from Pb loss due to metamorphic overprinting and interaction with low-temperature fluids. Hf-time space, 3. Crustal domains formed after 3. Protracted remelting was not accompanied by significant mantle depletion prior to 3. This implies that early crust production in the Zimbabwe Craton did not cause complementary enriched and depleted reservoirs that were tapped by later magmas, possibly because the volume of crust extracted and stabilised was too small to influence asthenospheric mantle isotopic evolution.

Growth of continental crust through pulsed emplacement of juvenile chondritic mantle-derived melts, into and onto the existing cratonic nucleus, however, involved formation of complementary depleted subcontinental lithospheric mantle since the early Archaean, indicative of strongly coupled evolutionary histories of both reservoirs, with limited evidence for recycling and lateral accretion of arc-related crustal blocks until 3.

An exsolution origin for Archean mantle garnet. Abstract: It is well established that the cratonic subcontinental lithospheric mantle C-SCLM represents a residue of extensively melted peridotite. The widespread occurrence of garnet in C-SCLM remains a paradox because experiments show that it should be exhausted beyond? It has been suggested that garnet may have formed by exsolution from Al-rich orthopyroxene; however, the few documented examples of garnet exsolution in cratonic samples are exotic and do not afford a direct link to garnet in granular harzburgite.

We report crystallographic, petrographic, and chemical data for an exceptionally well preserved orthopyroxene megacryst containing garnet lamellae, juxtaposed against granular harzburgite. Garnet lamellae are homogeneously distributed within the host orthopyroxene and occur at an orientation that is unrelated to orthopyroxene cleavage, strongly indicating that they formed by exsolution.

Garnet lamellae are subcalcic Cr-pyrope, and the orthopyroxene host is high-Mg enstatite; these phases equilibrated at 4. The reconstructed precursor is a high-Al enstatite that formed at higher pressure and temperature conditions of? We hypothesize that high-Al enstatite was a common phase in the C-SCLM and that exsolution during cooling and stabilization of the C-SCLM could be the origin of most subcalcic garnets in depleted peridotites.

Petrological, mineralogical and geochemical pecularities of Archaean cratons. Seismically, Archaean cratonic fragments are sharply-bounded deep roots of mechanically strong, cold lithospheric mantle, clearly distinguishable from non-cratonic lithosphere.

Rhenium-depletion of deep cratonic xenolith whole rocks and sulphide inclusions in diamond indicate that melting was broadly coeval with formation of the overlying proto-cratonic crust, which was of limited mechanical strength. A very important process of proto-cratonic development was vertical crustal reorganisation that eventually yielded a thermally stable, cratonised crust with a highly K-U-Th-rich uppermost crust and much more depleted deeper crust.

Clastic sedimentary rocks available for geochemical study are predominantly found in the youngest parts of supracrustal stratigraphies and over-represent the highly evolved rocks that appeared during cratonisation.

Vertical crustal reorganisation was driven by crustal radiogenic heat and emplacement of proto-craton-wide, incubating and dense supracrustal mafic and ultramafic volcanic rocks. Statistical analysis of these cover sequences shows a preponderance of basalt and a high abundance of ultramafic lavas with a dearth of picrite.

The ultramafic lavas can be grouped into Ti-enriched and Ti-depleted types and high pressure and temperature experimental data indicate that the latter formed from previously depleted mantle at temperatures in excess of ? Most mantle harzburgite xenoliths from cratonic roots are highly refractory, containing very magnesian olivine and many have a high modal abundance of orthopyroxene. High orthopyroxene mode is commonly attributed to metasomatic silica-enrichment or a non-pyrolitic mantle source but much of the excess silica requirement disappears if melting occurred at high pressures of ?

In many harzburgites, there is an intimate spatial association of garnet and spinel with orthopyroxene, which indicates formation of the Al-phase by exsolution upon cooling and decompression. New and published rare earth element REE data for garnet and orthopyroxene show that garnet has inherited its sinusoidal REE pattern from the orthopyroxene. The lack of middle-REE depletion in these refractory residues is consistent with the lack of middle- over heavy-REE fractionation in most komatiites.

This suggests that such pyroxene or garnet or precursor phases were present during komatiite melting. In the Kaapvaal craton, garnet exsolution upon significant cooling occurred as early as 3. Ga and geobarometry of diamond inclusions from ancient kimberlites also supports cool Archaean cratonic geotherms.

This requires that some mantle roots have extended to to possibly ? We maintain that the Archaean-Proterozoic boundary continues to be of geological significance, despite the recognition that upper crustal chemistry, as sampled by sedimentary rocks, became more evolved from ca. Ga onwards. The boundary coincides with the disappearance of widespread komatiite and marks the end of formation of typical refractory cratonic lithosphere.

This may signify a fundamental change in the thermal structure of the mantle after which upwellings no longer resulted in very high temperature perturbations. One school of thought is that the thermal re-ordering occurred at the core-mantle boundary whereas others envisage Archaean plumes to have originated at the base of the upper mantle.

Here we speculate that Archaean cratonic roots may contain remnants of older domains of non-convecting mantle. These domains are potential carriers of isotope anomalies and their base could have constituted a mechanical and thermal boundary layer. Above laterally extensive barriers, emerging proto-cratons were protected from the main mantle heat loss. The surviving cratons may therefore preserve biased evidence of geological processes that operated during the Archaean.

The Influence of large bolide impacts on Earth’s carbon cycle. Abstract: Human society’s rapid release of vast quantities of CO2 into the atmosphere is a significant planetary experiment.

An obvious natural process capable of similar emissions over geologically short time spans are very large bolide impacts. When striking a carbon-rich target, bolides significantly, and potentially catastrophically, disrupt the global biogeochemical carbon cycle.

Independent factors, such as sulfur-rich targets, redox state of the oceans or encountering ecosystems already close to a tipping point, dictated the magnitude of further consequences and determined which large bolide strikes shaped Earth’s evolution. On the early Earth, where carbon-rich sedimentary targets were rare, impacts may not have been purely destructive. Instead, enclosed subaqueous impact structures may have contributed to initiating Earth’s unique carbon cycle.

Depth-dependent peridotite-melt interaction and the origin of variable silica in the cratonic mantle. Abstract: Peridotites from the thick roots of Archaean cratons are known for their compositional diversity, whose origin remains debated.

We report thermodynamic modelling results for reactions between peridotite and ascending mantle melts. Reaction between highly magnesian melt komatiite and peridotite leads to orthopyroxene crystallisation, yielding silica-rich harzburgite. By contrast, shallow basalt-peridotite reaction leads to olivine enrichment, producing magnesium-rich dunites that cannot be generated by simple melting.

Komatiite is spatially and temporally associated with basalt within Archaean terranes indicating that modest-degree melting co-existed with advanced melting. We envisage a relatively cool mantle that experienced episodic hot upwellings, the two settings could have coexisted if roots of nascent cratons became locally strongly extended.

Alternatively, deep refractory silica-rich residues could have been detached from shallower dunitic lithosphere prior to cratonic amalgamation. Regardless, the distinct Archaean melting-reaction environments collectively produced skewed and multi-modal olivine distributions in the cratonic lithosphere and bimodal mafic-ultramafic volcanism at surface.

Fernandes, A. Karfunkel, J. De Al. Detailed mapping, aimed at characterizing the Mata da Corda Group of Upper Cretaceous age of Coromandel, has been carried out. This Group was divided into the Patos Formation, composed of kimberlitic and kamafugitic rocks, and the Capacete Formation, presented by conglomerates, pyroclastic rocks, arenite and tuffs.

The results have been compared to studies of the kimberlite bodies in the nearby Douradinho River. Kimberlite indicator minerals from these localities show the same compositional trend. Moreover, in the basal conglomerate of the Garimpo Canastrel two diamonds diamonds have been recovered and described. These detailed investigations suggest that the basal conglomerates of the Capacete Formation represent the main source rock of the alluvial diamond deposits in the Coromandel region.

Diamonds from the Coromandel area, west Minas Gerais State, Brazil: an update and new dat a on surface sources and origin. Abstract: Important diamond deposits southeast of Coromandel and the local geology have been studied in an attempt to understand what surface source provided the stones. The upper cretaceous Capacete Formation of the Mata da Corda Group, composed of mafic volcanoclastic, pyroclastic and epiclastic material, has been worked locally for diamonds, nevertheless considered non-economic.

The authors present results of their study of a deactivated small mine, representing the first report with description and analyses of two gem diamonds washed from this material. Hundreds of kimberlites, discovered in the last half century in the region, are sterile or non-economic.

The volume of this material is enormous representing a potential resource for large-scale mining. The authors suggest detailed studies of the volcanic facies of this unit focusing on the genesis, distribution and diamond content. As to the question concerning the origin of these diamondiferous pyroclastic rocks, the authors exclude the kimberlites and point towards the large Serra Negra and Salitre alkaline complexes which are considered the primary source for the pyroclastic units of the Mata da Corda Group.

They propose that early eruptive phases of this alkaline complex brought diamonds from a mantle source to the surface, much as happens with traditional kimberlites, to explain the association of such huge carbonatite complexes and diamonds. Chalapathi Rao, N. Knapp Mrs. Elisabeth B. Hayes Cyrus G. Bradley W. Hale Edgar C. Treadwell St.

Croix Falls St. Samuel Deneen William W. John B. Page Dr. Henning Moses S. Gibson Col. Otis Hoyt S. Fuller Miles H. Van Meter Philip B. Jewell John Tobin Horace A. Moffatt James H. Childs William Dwelley James M. Fulton Marcus A. Fulton David C. Fulton N. Holden William H.

Semmes Sterling Jones D. Bailey Henry C. Baker Mert Herrick D. Baldwin John Comstock Lucius P. Wetherby John C. Spooner Thomas Porter Herman L. Humphrey Theodore Cogswell Frank P. Catlin Charles Y. Denniston A. Jefferson Samuel C. Symonds John E. Price E. Bundy Towns and Biographies. Bradley William Dailey Robert and Wm. Johnson Joel Bartlett Francis W.

Bartlett George C. Hough Silas Staples Dr. Henry Murdock Steven N. Samuel Harriman St. Vance Allen R. Wilson E. Pierce Hans B. Taylor John Huitt John M. Thayer A. Andrews Joseph A. Short Prof. Allen H. Weld Allen P. Weld George W. Nichols W. Powell Oliver S. Powell Nils P. Haugen H. Burnett County. Stratton Barron County. Ashland County. Haskell G. Vaughn Dr. Edwin Ellis Martin Beaser Hon. Sam S. Fifield Bayfield County. Newton Judge Solon H. Clough Vincent Roy D. Frederic Ayer Rev.

William T. Boutwell Discovery of Itasca [Pg xxx] Mrs. Hester C. Grant, Sr. Robinson Hiram Brackett Randall K. Burrows John S. Kanabec County. History, Boundaries, etc. Danforth N. Danforth Alvah J. Cater M. Cater Edwin Allen John H. Allen A. Damon [Pg xxxi] C. Ingalls Mrs. Lavina L. Hallberg Charles A. Anderson Frank N. Pratt Voloro D. Eddy F. Brown Patten W. Davis James F. Harvey Floyd S.

Bates Isaac H. Warner Charles F. Lowe Wells Farr John G. Mold George L. Blood Joel G. Jesse Taylor Joshua L. Taylor Nathan C. Taylor Thomas F. Morton Henry N.

Setzer Patrick Fox William F. Newbury Emil Munch A. Wilmarth Lucius K. Stannard James W. Mullen David Caneday George B. Folsom Aaron M. Chase Peter Abear Levi W. Folsom Eddington Knowles Dr. Lucius B. Smith William Comer E. Whiting and Brothers Frederic Tang, Sr. Folsom George W. Seymour James A. Edwards Stephen J. Gray John P. Tombler Dr. Furber Samuel W. Furber Theodore Furber James S.

Dibble George Harris Harley D. Crosby Reuben H. Parker Hiram Berkey George B. Otis William Clark James R. Meredith [Pg xxxiv] John D. Ward Samuel Judd Frederic W. Lammers James R. Ford Daniel Hopkins, Sr. Lyman Henry A. Jackman Frederic J. City of Stillwater. Isaac Staples Samuel F. Murdock George M. Seymour Frank A. Susannah Tepass William E. Thorne Edmund J. Butts A.

Easton Edwin A. Folsom John B. Castle Abraham L. Gallespie John C. Gardiner V. Seward Ralph Wheeler Edward S. Van Voorhes Andrew J. Van Voorhes Henry C. Van Voorhes C. Bromley Charles J. Butler Levi E. Thompson George Davis William M. McCluer John N. Ahl Samuel M. Register J. Johnson Gold T. Curtis Harley D. Curtis Francis R. Delano Henry W. Cannon Dwight M. Stearns County. Organization and History of St.

Wilson Charles T. Stearns Henry G. Collins Henry C. Waite Gen. Lowry A. Evans Ambrose Freeman Nathan F. Barnes Nehemiah P. Clark Oscar E. Garrison Charles A. Gilman Other Citizens Anoka County. Arnold S. Ridge J. Green S. Haskell M. Frost A. Bean A. Fridley William Staples Capt.

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Bouch Robert Russell Peter A. Green Rodolphus D. Kinney John D. Logan Crow Wing County. White Allen Morrison Charles F. Aitkin County. Watkins St. Louis County. Stuntz George E. Stone Charles H. Graves Ozro P. Stearns Lake County.

Description Two Harbors Cook County. Anthony Incorporated Annexation to Minneapolis, St. Anthony List of Mayors Water vs. Calvin A. Tuttle Cyrus Aldrich Dr.

Alfred E. Ames Dr. Albert A. Ames Jesse Ames Cadwallader C. Washburn William D. Washburn Joseph C. Russell Horatio P. Van Cleve Charlotte O. Lennon John H. Stevens Caleb D. Dorr Rev. Edward D. Neill John Wensignor Robert H. Hasty Stephen Pratt Capt. John Tapper R. Cummings Elias H. Conner C. Foster A. Foster Charles E. Vanderburgh Dorillius Morrison H. Morrison F. Cornell Gen. Nettleton Isaac Atwater Rev.

David Brooks Prof. Jabez Brooks John S. Pillsbury Henry T. Wilson R. Langdon William M. Bracket Thos. Walker Austin H. Young Henry G. Hicks John P. Organization, First Officers St. Paul North St. Forbes Henry M.

Larpenteur William H. Nobles Simeon P. Folsom Jacob W. Bass Benjamin W. Brunson Abram S. Elfelt D. Baker Benjamin F. Hoyt John Fletcher Williams Dr. John H. Murphy William H. Tinker George P. Jacobs Lyman Dayton Henry L. Lott W. Davidson Wm. Fisher Charles H. Oakes C. Borup Capt.

Russell Blakely Rensselaer R. Nelson George L. Flandrau John B. Sanborn John R. Irvine Horace R. Bigelow Cushman K. Davis S. McMillan Willis A. Gorman John D.

Ludden Elias F. Drake Norman W. Kittson Hascal R. Brill Ward W. Folsom [Pg xl] Gordon E. Cole James Smith, Jr. Whitcher T. Newson Alvaren Allen Harlan P. Dakota County. Crosby G. Le Duc Goodhue County. Hubbard William Colville Martin S. Wilson Wabasha County. Tefft James Wells Winona County. Scenery Winona City Daniel S. Norton William Windom Charles H. Pierre Bottineau Andrew G. Dunnell James H.

Baker Horace B. McDonald Thomas H. Armstrong Augustus Armstrong Moses K. Armstrong James B. Paul Railroad St. Stuntz on Lake Superior and St. Croix Canal Waterways Convention, E. Durant’s Valuable Statistics Resolution for St. Croix Ice Boats James W. Mullen’s Reminiscences, St. Croix Rev. Julius S.

Scott, Maj. Anderson, and Jeff. Davis Jeff. Military History of the Rebellion, to Gov. After mature deliberation we concluded to go West. Returning to Bloomfield, I collected the money held for me by Capt. Ruel Weston and was soon in readiness for the journey. But a few days before the time agreed upon for leaving, I received a letter from Simeon Goodrich, which contained the unpleasant information that he could not collect the amount due him and could not go with me.

Truly this was a disappointment. I was obliged to set out alone, no light undertaking at that early day, for as yet there were no long lines of railroad between Maine and the Mississippi river.

The day at last arrived for me to start. My companions and acquaintances chaffed me as to the perils of the journey before me. My mother gave me her parting words, “William, always respect yourself in order to be respected.

The stage took us directly to the steamboat at Gardiner. The steam was up and the boat was soon under way. It was the New England, the first boat of the kind I had ever seen.

I felt strangely unfamiliar with the ways of the traveling world, but observed what others did, and asked no questions, and so fancied that my ignorance of traveling customs would not be exposed. It was sunset as we floated out into the wide expanse of the Atlantic. The western horizon was tinged with fiery hues, the shores grew fainter and receded from view and the eye could rest at last only upon the watery expanse.

All [Pg 2] things seemed new and strange. Next morning a heavy fog hung over the scene. The vessel was at anchor in Boston harbor and we were soon on shore and threading the crooked streets of the capital of Massachusetts. I was not lost in the wilderness maze of streets, as I had feared I should be, but on leaving Boston on the evening train I took the wrong car and found myself uncomfortably situated in a second or third class car, crowded and reeking with vile odors, from which the conductor rescued me, taking me to the pleasant and elegant car to which my first class ticket entitled me.

On arriving at Providence I followed the crowd to the landing and embarked on the steamer President for New York, in which city we remained a day, stopping at the City Hotel on Broadway. I was greatly impressed with the beauty of part of the city, and the desolate appearance of the Burnt District, concerning the burning of which we had read in our winter camp. I was not a little puzzled with the arrangement of the hotel tables and the printed bills of fare, but closely watched the deportment of others and came through without any serious or mortifying blunder.

Stevens for Albany, and on the evening of the same day went to Schenectady by railroad. Some of the way cars were hauled by horses up hills and inclined planes. There were then only three short lines of railroad in the United States, and I had traveled on two of them. At Schenectady I took passage on a canal boat to Buffalo. I had read about “De Witt Clinton’s Ditch,” and now greatly enjoyed the slow but safe passage it afforded, and the rich prospect of cities, villages and cultivated fields through which we passed.

At Buffalo we remained but one day. We there exchanged eastern paper for western, the former not being current in localities further west. At Buffalo I caught my first glimpse of Lake Erie. I stood upon a projecting pier and recalled, in imagination, the brave Commodore Perry, gallantly defending his country’s flag in one of the most brilliant engagements of the war, the fame whereof had long been familiar to the whole country and the thrilling incidents of which were the theme of story and song even in the wilderness camps of Maine.

The steamer Oliver Newberry bore me from Buffalo to Detroit. From Detroit to Mt. Clemens, Michigan, I went by stage and stopped at the last named place until October 14th, when, being [Pg 3] satisfied that the climate was unhealthy, fever and ague being very prevalent, I returned to Detroit, and on the fifteenth of the same month took passage on the brig Indiana, as steamers had quit running for the season.

The brig was aground two days and nights on the St. Clair flats. A south wind gave us a splendid sail up the Detroit river into Lake Huron. We landed for a short time at Fort Gratiot, at the outlet of the lake, just as the sun was setting. The fort was built of stone, and presented an impressive appearance. The gaily uniformed officers, the blue-coated soldiers, moving with the precision of machines, the whole scene—the fort, the waving flags, the movement of the troops seen in the mellow sunset light—was impressive to one who had never looked upon the like before.

A favorable breeze springing up, we sped gaily out into the blue Lake Huron. At Saginaw bay the pleasant part of the voyage ended. The weather became rough.

A strong gale blew from the bay outward, and baffled all the captain’s skill in making the proper direction. Profane beyond degree was Capt. McKenzie, but his free-flowing curses availed him nothing. The brig at one time was so nearly capsized that her deck load had rolled to one side and held her in an inclined position.

The captain ordered most of the deck load, which consisted chiefly of Chicago liquors, thrown overboard. Unfortunately, several barrels were saved, two of which stood on deck, with open heads.

This liquor was free to all. The vessel, lightened of a great part of her load, no longer careened, but stood steady against the waves and before the wind. It is a pity that the same could not be said of captain, crew and passengers, who henceforth did the careening. They dipped the liquor up in pails and drank it out of handled dippers. They got ingloriously drunk; they rolled unsteadily across the deck; they quarreled, they fought, they behaved like Bedlamites, and how near shipwreck was the goodly brig from that day’s drunken debauch on Chicago free liquor will never be known.

The vessel toiled, the men were incapacitated for work, but notwithstanding the tempest of profanity and the high winds, the wrangling of crew and captain, we at last passed Saginaw bay. The winds were more favorable. Thence to Mackinaw the sky was clear and bright, the air cold. The night before reaching Mackinaw an unusual disturbance occurred above resulting from the abundance of free liquor. The cook, being [Pg 4] drunk, had not provided the usual midnight supper for the sailors.

The key of the caboose was lost; the caboose was broken open, and the mate in the morning was emulating the captain in the use of profane words. The negro cook answered in the same style, being as drunk as his superior. This cook was a stout, well built man, with a forbidding countenance and, at his best, when sober, was a saucy, ill-natured and impertinent fellow. When threat after threat had been hurled back and forth, the negro jumped at the mate and knocked him down.

The sailors, as by a common impetus, seized the negro, bound him tightly and lashed him to a capstan. On searching him they found two loaded pistols. These the mate placed close to each ear of the bound man, and fired them off. They next whipped him on the naked back with a rope. His trunk was then examined and several parcels of poison were found. Another whipping was administered, and this time the shrieks and groans of the victim were piteous. Before he had not even winced.

The monster had prepared himself to deal death alike to crew and passengers, and we all felt a great sense of relief when Capt. McKenzie delivered him to the authorities at Mackinaw. Antique Mackinaw was a French and half-breed town. The houses were built of logs and had steep roofs. Trading posts and whisky shops were well barred. The government fort, neatly built and trim, towered up above the lake on a rocky cliff and overlooked the town, the whole forming a picturesque scene.

We remained but a few hours at Mackinaw. There were ten cabin passengers, and these, with two exceptions, had imbibed freely of the Chicago free liquor.

They were also continually gambling. McKenzie had fought a fist fight with a deadhead passenger, Capt. Fox, bruising him badly. What with his violence and profanity, the brutality of the mate and the drunken reveling of crew and passengers, the two sober passengers had but a sorry time, but the safe old brig, badly officered, badly managed, held steadily on its course, and October 30th, fifteen days from Detroit, safely landed us in Chicago.

After being so long on the deck of a tossing vessel, I experienced a strange sensation when first on shore. I had become accustomed to the motion of the vessel, and had managed to hold myself steady. On shore the pitching and tossing movement seemed to continue, only it seemed transferred to my head, [Pg 5] which grew dizzy, and so produced the illusion that I was still trying to balance myself on the unsteady deck of the ship. Chicago, since become a great city, had at that time the appearance of an active, growing village.

Thence I proceeded, November 1st and 2d, by stage to Milwaukee, which appeared also as a village, but somewhat overgrown. Idle men were numerous, hundreds not being able to obtain employment. Here I remained a couple of weeks, stopping at the Belleview House. After which I chopped wood a few days for Daniel Wells. Not finding suitable employment, I started west with a Mr. Rogers, December 2d. There being no other means of conveyance, we traveled on foot.

On the evening of the second we stopped at Prairie Village, now known as Waukesha. On the evening of the third we stopped at Meacham’s Prairie, and on the fifth reached Rock River, where I stopped with a Mr.

The evening following we stopped at an Irish house, where the surroundings did not conduce to comfort or to a feeling of security. Several drunken men kept up a continuous row. We hid our money in a haystack, and took our turn sleeping and keeping watch. We ate an early breakfast, and were glad to get away before the men who had created such a disturbance during the night were up.

We moved onward on the seventh to Blue Mound, where we found a cheerful resting place at Brigham’s. The eighth brought us to Dodgeville, where we stopped at Morrison’s. On the ninth we reached Mineral Point, the locality of the lead mines, where I afterward lost much time in prospecting. Mineral Point was then a rude mining town. The night of our arrival was one of excitement and hilarity in the place.

The first legislature of the territory of Wisconsin had been in session at Belmont, near Mineral Point, had organized the new government and closed its session on that day. To celebrate this event and their emancipation from the government of Michigan and the location of the capital at Madison, the people from the Point, and all the region round about, had met and prepared a banquet for the retiring members of the legislature.

Madison was at that time a paper town, in the wilderness, but beautifully located on Cat Fish lake, and at the head of Rock river. The location had been accomplished by legislative tact, and a compromise between the extremes.

In view of the almost certain division of the Territory, with the Mississippi river as a [Pg 6] boundary, at no very distant day, it was agreed that Madison should be the permanent capital, while Burlington, now in Iowa, should be used temporarily. Milwaukee and Green Bay had both aspired to the honor of being chosen as the seat of government. Mineral Point, with her rich mines, had also aspirations, as had Cassville, which latter named village had even built a great hotel for the accommodation of the members of the assembly.

Dubuque put in a claim, but all in vain. Madison was chosen, and wisely, and she has ever since succeeded in maintaining the supremacy then thrust upon her.

In my boyhood, at school, I had read of the great Northwest Territory. It seemed to me then far away, at the world’s end, but I had positively told my comrades that I should one day go there. I found myself at last on the soil, and at a period or crisis important in its history. The immense territory had been carved and sliced into states and territories, and now the last remaining fragment, under the name of Wisconsin, had assumed territorial prerogatives, organized its government, and, with direct reference to a future division of territory, had selected its future capital, for as yet, except in name, Madison was not.

In assuming territorial powers, the boundaries had been enlarged so as to include part of New Louisiana, and the first legislature had virtually bartered away this part of her domain, of which Burlington, temporary capital of Wisconsin, was to be the future capital.

Two more days of foot plodding brought us to Galena, the city of lead. The greeting on our entering the city was the ringing of bells, the clattering of tin pans, the tooting of ox horns, sounds earthly and unearthly,—sounds no man can describe.

What could it be? Was it for the benefit of two humble, footsore pedestrians that all this uproar was produced? We gave it up for the time, but learned subsequently that it was what is known as a charivari, an unmusical and disorderly serenade, generally gotten up for the benefit of some newly married couple, whose nuptials had not met with popular approval.

At Galena I parted with Mr. Rogers, my traveling companion, who went south. On the fifteenth of December I traveled to Dubuque on foot. When I came to the Mississippi river I sat down on its banks and recalled the humorous description of old [Pg 7] Mr. Carson, my neighbor, to which I had listened wonderingly when a small boy. The turtles in it were big as barn doors, and their shells would make good ferryboats if they could only be kept above water.

Several persons desiring to cross, we made a portable bridge of boards, sliding them along with us till we were safe on the opposite bank. I was now at the end of my journey, on the west bank of the Mississippi, beyond which stretched a vast and but little known region, inhabited by Indians and wild beasts.

As I review the incidents of my journey in , I can not but contrast the conditions of that era and the present. How great the change in half a century! The journey then required thirty days. It now requires but three. I had passed over but two short lines of railroad, and had made the journey by canal boat, by steamer, by stage, and a large portion of it on foot.

There were few regularly established lines of travel. From Michigan to the Mississippi there were no stages nor were there any regular southern routes. Travelers to the centre of the continent, in those days, came either by the water route, via New Orleans or the Fox and Wisconsin river route, or followed Indian trails or blazed lines from one settlement to another.

The homes of the settlers were rude—were built principally of logs. In forest regions the farms consisted of clearings or square patches of open ground, well dotted with stumps and surrounded by a dense growth of timber. The prairies, except around the margins or along certain belts of timber following the course of streams, were without inhabitants. Hotels were few and far between, and, when found, not much superior to the cabins of the settlers; but the traveler was always and at all places hospitably entertained.

Dubuque was a town of about three hundred inhabitants, attracted thither by the lead mines. The people were principally of the mining class.

The prevailing elements amongst them were Catholic and Orange Irish. These two parties were antagonistic and would quarrel on the streets or wherever brought in contact. Sundays were especially days of strife, and Main [Pg 8] street was generally the field of combat. Women even participated. There was no law, there were no police to enforce order. The fight went on, the participants pulling hair, gouging, biting, pummeling with fists or pounding with sticks, till one or the other party was victorious.

These combats were also accompanied with volleys of profanity, and unlimited supplies of bad whisky served as fuel to the flame of discord. Dubuque was certainly the worst town in the West, and, in a small way, the worst in the whole country. The entire country west of the Mississippi was without law, the government of Wisconsin Territory not yet being extended to it.

Justice, such as it was, was administered by Judge Lynch and the mob. My first employment was working a hand furnace for smelting lead ore for a man named Kelly, a miner and a miser. He lived alone in a miserable hovel, and on the scantiest fare.

In January I contracted to deliver fifty cords of wood at Price’s brickyard. I cut the wood from the island in front of the present city of Dubuque, and hired a team to deliver it. While in Dubuque I received my first letter from home in seven months.

What a relief it was, after a period of long suspense, spent in tediously traveling over an almost wilderness country,—amidst unpleasant surroundings, amongst strangers, many of them of the baser sort, drinking, card playing, gambling and quarreling,—what a relief it was to receive a letter from home with assurances of affectionate regard from those I most esteemed. Truly the lines had not fallen to me in pleasant places, and I was sometimes exposed to perils from the lawless characters by whom I was surrounded.

On one occasion a dissolute and desperate miner, named Gilbert, came to Cannon’s hotel, which was my boarding house while in Dubuque. He usually came over from the east side of the river once a week for a spree. On this occasion, being very drunk, he was more than usually offensive and commenced abusing Cannon, the landlord, applying to him some contemptuous epithet.

I thoughtlessly remarked to Cannon, “You have a new name,” upon which Gilbert cocked his pistol and aiming at me was about to fire when Cannon, quick as thought, struck at his arm and so destroyed his aim that the bullet went over my head. The report of the pistol brought others to the room and a general melee ensued in which the bar [Pg 9] was demolished, the stove broken and Gilbert unmercifully whipped. Gilbert was afterward shot in a drunken brawl.

I formed some genial acquaintances in Dubuque, amongst them Gen. Booth, Messrs. Brownell, Wilson and others, since well known in the history of the country. Price, the wood contractor, never paid me for my work.

I invested what money I had left for lots in Madison, all of which I lost, and had, in addition, to pay a note I had given on the lots. On February 11th I went to Cassville, journeying thither on the ice. This village had flourished greatly, in the expectation of becoming the territorial and state capital, expectations doomed, as we have seen, to disappointment.

It is romantically situated amidst picturesque bluffs, some of which tower aloft like the walls and turrets of an ancient castle, a characteristic that attaches to much of the bluff scenery along this point. I reached this old French town on the twelfth of February. The town and settlement adjacent extended over a prairie nine miles long, and from one to two miles broad, a beautiful plateau of land, somewhat sandy, but for many years abundantly productive, furnishing supplies to traders and to the military post established there.

It also furnished two cargoes of grain to be used as seed by the starving settlement at Selkirk, which were conveyed thither by way of the Mississippi, St. Peter and Red rivers. The earliest authentic mention of the place refers to the establishment of a post called St. Nicholas, on the east bank of the Mississippi, at the mouth of the Wisconsin, by Gov.

De La Barre, who, in , sent Nicholas Perrot with a garrison of twenty men to hold the post. The first official document laying claim to the country on the Upper Mississippi, issued in , has mention of the fort. This document we transcribe entire:. Croix, and at the mouth of the river St. Pierre Minnesota , on the bank of which were the Mantantans; and further up to the interior to the northeast of the Mississippi, as far as the Menchokatoux, with whom dwell the majority of the Songeskitens, and other Nadouessioux, who are to the northeast of the Mississippi, to take possession for, and in the name of, the king of the countries and rivers inhabited by the said tribes, and of which they are proprietors.

The present act done in our presence, signed with our hand and subscribed. There is little doubt that this post was held continuously by the French as a military post until , when the French authorities at Quebec withdrew all their troops from Wisconsin, and as a trader’s post or settlement, until the surrender in to the British of all French claims east of the Mississippi.

It was probably garrisoned near the close of the latter period. It remained in the possession of the French some time, as the English, thinking it impossible to compete for the commerce of the Indian tribes with the French traders who had intermarried with them, and so acquired great influence, did not take actual possession until many years later. The post is occasionally mentioned by the early voyageurs, and the prairie which it commanded was known as the “Prairie du Chien,” or praire of the dog, as early as , and is so mentioned by Carver.

It was not formally taken possession of by the United States until , when Gov. Clarke with two hundred men came up from St. Louis to Prairie du Chien, then under [Pg 11] English rule, to build a fort and protect American interests at the village.

At that time there were about fifty families, descended chiefly from the old French settlers. These were engaged chiefly in farming, owning a common field four miles long by a half mile wide.


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Welcome Guest User увидеть больше Select Company Profiles Canadian International Pharma Corp H-V Pediment Gold Corp. H-V St. Advanced Search. Pat has kindly agreed to посмотреть больше her work to be made available as an online digital resource at Kaiser Research Online so that a broader community interested in diamonds windows 10 1703 download iso itasca staters ad related geology can benefit.

The references are for personal use information purposes only; when available a link is provided to itsca online location where the full article can be accessed or purchased directly.

Reproduction of this compilation in part or in whole without permission from the Sheahan Diamond Literature Service is strictly prohibited. Return to Diamond Resource Center. Consider DS The DS stands for “diamond scientific”. For all years prior to the default month is The number below the refence code, ieis the year the article was published.

Note that the posted year may sometimes be later than по этой ссылке published year. References are sorted by the “author” name and when the reference was posted to the compilation. If the reference code is highlighted yellow, the reference was made available through the most recent monthly compilation of new literature. Use this to check out new references. When new references are posted, we make it our priority to track down an online link and obtain an abstract.

With regard to older references, tracking down an abstract and an online link is a work in dodnload. If the title has a link, it means we have ae a location online where you can either retrieve the full article free, or purchase access to it.

The Sheahan Diamond Literature Service is not a technical article procurement service; if you want a restricted article, you must deal directly with the vendor who controls the copyright to the article. In your Firefox browser click Edit in the menu bar and then Find. In the Find box that shows up at the bottom of the web 11 bagas windows pro enter your search term.

Firefox will highlight all occurrences. This is particularly helpful when the author you are seeking was not the lead author by whom the compilation is sorted. In Firefox, if you right click on it, you can obtain the link url for that reference’s location within the page, which you can copy and paste into an email or any other document. You can also use the “share this link” option to tweet, 17703 etc the link.

DS Abstract: We examined SKS-SKKS splitting intensity discrepancies for phases that sample the lowermost mantle beneath North America, which has previously been shown to exhibit seismic anisotropy using other analysis techniques. We examined data from 25 long-running seismic stations, along with stations of the temporary USArray Transportable Array, located in the eastern, southeastern and western U.

Of the pairs, a relatively small number 15 exhibited discrepancies in splitting intensity of 0. Because only a windows 10 1703 download iso itasca staters ad minority of SK K S phases examined in this study show evidence of being affected by lowermost mantle anisotropy, the traditional interpretation that splitting of these phases primarily reflects anisotropy in the upper mantle directly beneath the stations is appropriate.

The discrepant pairs exhibited a striking geographic trend, sampling the lowermost mantle beneath the southern U. We windows 10 1703 download iso itasca staters ad out windows 10 1703 download iso itasca staters ad theoretical modeling of simple anisotropy scenarios that have previously been suggested for the lowermost mantle beneath North America, invoking the alignment of post-perovskite due to flow induced by the читать полностью of the remnant Farallon slab on the core-mantle boundary.

Magnetotelluric 3-D full tensor inversion in the Dharwar craton, India: mapping of subduction polarity and itasva melt. Abstract: Complex geological structures and processes that took place in the Dharwar craton formation make it посетить страницу to understand the evolution history. Data at 40 stations in a gridded fashion are used in this study for inversion. A controversy exists regarding the subduction polarity between the eastern and western Dharwar craton.

Based on the conductivity anomalies mapped in the sub-surface, the lithosphere can stafers divided into the shallower and deeper lithosphere. The study delineated several crustal and lithospheric upper mantle conductors.

A new finding of this по этому адресу study is a conductor in the eastern Dharwar craton in the depth range of km. An uppermost downlpad conductor is present at the depth range of km in the central part of the study area.

Sulphides and carbon-rich fluids could be one cause of the conductors descargar powerpoint 2010 gratis in the crust. The low electrical resistivity imaged in the deeper lithosphere could be due to the refertilization of the mantle scar in the Cretaceous age by the passage of several hotspots.

The lithospheric thickness estimated beneath the Dharwar craton in this study is more than km. This study reveals da evidence for the eastward iiso polarity in the Dharwar craton. Geophysics – gravity, geothermometry, heat flow, lithos, craton – East European, Siberia, Australia, India.

Combined multifactor evidence of a giant downloadd mantle ring structure below the eastern mediterranean. Abstract: In the Arabian-Northern African region, interaction of the Nubian, Arabian and Eurasian plates and many small tectonic units is conspicuous.

We applied the polynomial approximation to the gravity data which windows 10 1703 download iso itasca staters ad the presence of a large, deep ring structure in the eastern Mediterranean centered below the Island of Cyprus. Computations of the residual gravity anomalies for the lower mantle also indicate presence of anomalous sources. The GPS vector pattern coinciding with the gravity trend implies counter clockwise rotation of this structure. Independent analyses of the geoid isolines map and seismic tomography data support the existence of a deep anomaly.

Paleomagnetic data analysis from the surrounding regions confirms a counter clockwise rotation. Numerous petrological, mineralogical, geodynamical and tectonic data suggest stateds relation between this deep structure and near-surface processes. This anomaly sheds light on a number of phenomena including the Cyprus gravity anomaly, counter clockwise rotation of the Mesozoic terrane belt and asymmetry of basins along continental transform faults.

A gravity model of the North Eurasia crust and upper mantle: 1. Density structure of lithosphere in the southwestern United States and its tectonic significance. Nature of the crust mantle transition zone and the thermal downloac of the upper mantle Deep Europe today: geophysical synthesis of the upper mantle structure and lithospheric страница over 3.

Importance of lateral viscosity variations in the whole mantle for modelling of the dynamic geoid and surface velocities. Density, temperature and composition of the North American lithosphere – new insights from a joint analysis of seismic, gravity and is physics data: 1. Здесь root beneath North America shifted by basal drag from the convecting mantle. Abstract: Stable continental cratons are the oldest geologic features on the planet.

They doenload survived 3. The key to the preservation of cratons lies in their strong and thick lithospheric roots, which are neutrally or positively ссылка на подробности with respect to surrounding mantle3, 4. Most of these Archaean-aged cratonic roots are thought to have remained stable since their formation and to be too viscous to be affected by mantle convection2, 3, 5.

Here we use a combination of gravity, topography, crustal structure and seismic tomography data to show that the deepest part of the craton root beneath the North American Superior Province has shifted about ? We use numerical model simulations to show that this shift could have been caused by basal drag induced by mantle flow, implying that mantle flow can alter craton structure.

Our observations contradict the conventional view of cratons as static, non-evolving geologic features. We conclude that there windows 10 1703 download iso itasca staters ad be significant interaction between deep continental roots and the convecting mantle.

Giant quasi-ring structure if the African-Arabian junction: results derived from the geological-geophsyical data integration. Abstract: The tectonic-geodynamic characteristics of the North African-Arabian region are windows 10 1703 download iso itasca staters ad by interaction of numerous factors.

To study this interaction, we primarily used the satellite gravity data retracked to windows 10 1703 download iso itasca staters ad Earth’s surfacerecognized as a powerful tool for tectonic-geodynamic zonation. The applied polynomial averaging of gravity data indicated the presence of a giant, deep quasi-ring structure in the Eastern Mediterranean, the center of which is located under the Island of Cyprus.

Simultaneously, the geometrical center of the revealed structure coincides with the Earth’s critical latitude of 35?. A quantitative analysis of the obtained gravitational anomaly made it possible to estimate the depth of the upper edge of the anomalous body as ?

The GPS vector map coinciding with the gravitational trend indicates counterclockwise rotation of this structure. Review of paleomagnetic data on the projection of the discovered structure into the earth’s surface also windows 10 1703 download iso itasca staters ad its counterclockwise rotation. The analysis of the geoid anomalies map and seismic tomography data commonly approve presence of this deep anomaly. The structural and isl characteristics of the region and читать полностью data are consistent with the proposed physical-geological model.

Comprehensive analysis of petrological, mineralogical, and tectonic data suggests a relationship between the discovered deep structure and near-surface processes. The revealed geological deep structure sheds light on specific anomalous effects in the upper crustal layer, including the high-intensity Cyprus gravity anomaly, 7103 rotation of the Mesozoic terrane belt, configuration of the Sinai plate, and the asymmetry of sedimentary basins along the continental faults.

Giant quasi-ring mantle structure детальнее на этой странице the African-Arabian junction: results derived windows 10 1703 download iso itasca staters ad the geological-geophysical data integration. A thermo-compositional statesr of the cratonic lithosphere of South America. Abstract: Ссылка на продолжение lithosphere and upper mantle of South America is investigated using multiple data sets, including the topography, crustal structure, regional seismic tomography, gravity, and mineral physics.

These data are jointly inverted to estimate variations in temperature, density and composition in the lithospheric and sub-lithospheric upper mantle to a depth of km. However, portions of some cratons, such as the western Guyana Shield, lack a depleted root.

We hypothesize that these regions either never developed a depleted root, or that the root was rejuvenated by lithospheric processes. Fluid tectonic mobilization of the buried crusts of kimberlite weathering and origin Urals diamond deposits. Tin polymetric sulphide deposits in the eastern part of the Dachang tin field and windows 10 1703 download iso itasca staters ad of black shales – origin. A new tectonic and temporal framework for the Tanzanian windows 10 1703 download iso itasca staters ad implications for gold metallogeny and привожу ссылку endowment.

Mantle sources and magma crust interactions in volcanic rocks from northern Kenya Rift: geochemical по ссылке. Structure and geological history of the Congo basin: an integrated interpretation ссылка на страницу gravity, magnetic and reflection seismic data.

Ittasca granitoids in the basement of Bangladesh: a piece of the Indian Shield or an exotic fragment of the Gondwana jigsaw? Typomorphic features of graphite mineralization of probable alternative high pressure sources of diamond: cubic graphite.

Direct observations of crystal defects in polycrystalline diamond. Abstract: Crystal defects are abundant in synthetic diamond produced by chemical vapor deposition CVD.


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At the hour for retiring parties of two would spread their blankets on a couch of fir or cedar boughs, and lie down to rest. Bean J. Thus, not all Hadean detrital zircon with low Ti necessarily formed during melting at plate boundaries, but at least av could also have crystallized in melt sheets caused by intense meteorite bombardment of windows 10 1703 download iso itasca staters ad early, hydrosphere-covered protocrust. The doanload added its finishing touches to the picture, increasing the brightness and apparent size of distant по этой ссылке, or lending them brilliant hues, the whole scene sparkling in the frosty sunlit air, making a vision of beauty that could not downlkad. Return to Diamond Resource Center. IIId at 4. The mantle xenoliths from upper-Jurassic Obnajennaya kimberlite pipe Kuoika field, Yakutia were studied.❿

Windows 10 1703 download iso itasca staters ad.BY W. H. C. FOLSOM.

The age of diamond inclusions and the Os-isotope composition of deep cratonic xenoliths support a model of coeval formation of the crustal and residual mantle portions. White, M.

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