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Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. Baldursson S, Karanis P. Waterborne transmission of protozoan Cryptosporidium oocysts have been detected in surface parasites: review of worldwide outbreaks—an update — Water Res. Epub Oct Evolution of monitoring for Giardia regarding the occurrence and distribution of Cryptosporid- and Cryptosporidium in water. Epub 18 Jun Waterborne transmission of Cryptosporidium was detected in surface water reservoirs, protozoan parasites: review of worldwide outbreaks—an update swimming pools and drinking water samples.

Swimming is a — Giardia and Cryptosporidium: Occurrence in water supplies. In: Nriagu JO, editor. Encyclopedia of environmental health, vol.

Burlington: Elsevier Science Inc; Why Cryptosporidium research for large water supplies: public health protection policy in Europe and Mediterranean investigations in the lake Mornos, the big water reservoir of greater Athens. Cryptosporidium: From Molecules to Dis. Although new innovative technologies used to October , Fremantle, Western Australia. Distribution and removal of Giardia ; Spanakos et al. Water Sci The presence of Cryptosporidium in aquatic ecosystems Technol. Human incidence and Sakkas H.

Cryptosporidium and Giardia in natural, drinking and recreational waters of Northwestern Greece. Acta Hydrochim prevalence-based studies provide baseline data against Hydrobiol.

Standardized methods are Stojanova K. Occurrence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in water required to maximize public health surveillance, while supplies of Russia and Bulgaria.

Environ Res. Waterborne transmission of protozoan insight into the public health impact of waterborne and parasites: a worldwide review of outbreaks and lessons learnt. In those countries J Water Health. Cryp- reporting systems. It would be important to coordinate all tosporidium spp.

Euro- surveillance systems in between all countries for early surveillance; Cryptosporidium and cryp- detection and measures against waterborne-Cryptosporidium tosporidiosis: the Asian perspective. Int J Hyg Environ Health outbreaks and to establish effective and suitable diagnosis ;— PMID: Water-borne protozoa parasites: the Latin American perspective.

Int J Hyg Environ Health ; approaches and further developments in the understanding 5 — Epub of Cryptosporidium epidemiology in Europe and Mediter- 19 Mar He completed contributions on parasitic diseases and their control in many countries. He has an outstanding academic pathogens and most important infectious diseases. He has authored university professors and researchers to China. Publication must be seen as an important, if not the most Author Biography important, part of the research process.

However, writing Dr. After producing data and generating ideas University of Sfax Tunisia. He received from your research, the remaining questions that need to be fellowships from the global change System answered are: how to write a clear and concise paper that for Analysis, Research and Training attracts the attention of journal editors? How to respond to reviewer reports? A Senior to to continue with his Ph. After structure your paper, prepare a cover page and respond to completing his Ph.

He shares his experience and his strategy for devel- the International Ocean Drilling Program IODP and applying foraminiferal and geochemical proxy methods. In early lishes a workflow for effective and rapid peer review. He is mainly responsible for developing do not! The Editors are the hub of the how it is done? He helping them to handle several hundreds of submissions joined Venture Business Laboratory each year. Since , he has been lec- On the other hand, the increase of the Impact Factor is the turing at the Sfax National School of Engineering University of Sfax, goal to achieve for the journal team, meanwhile it is the Tunisia.

There, he has also been involved in various research projects catalyst of the journal success and plays a key role to attract related to Environmental Geology and Environmental Geotechnics. In addition, Dr. Kallel is involved as a consultant in urban and environmental and gain interest of authors in term of number as well as projects for the Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development in quality.

Nevertheless, for a newly launched journal, several Tunisia. Kallel has organized many prestigious workshops, seminars and approaches and actions have to be followed by the editorial international conferences. Currently, he is supporting the editorial board of board to promote the journal and increase its impacts among the Euro-Mediterranean Journal for Environmental Integration Springer.

We have inherited an H. The purpose of this event, which has been K. Ksibi tries on the African continent. Nassali creation of activity. Tahar environment and climate change. Nor-Edine et al. His research focuses on chemicals in the environment, orations between the various industrial and university water and wastewater treatment and reuse.

He developed new methods for clusters. Sc and Ph. The city of Sfax southeastern Tunisia has lived, for more development plans and thus jeopardized many future than 60 years, a very special environmental situation. The strategies for a proper modernization of the city. Lastly, it second largest city in the country is distinguished for its has made Sfax a city whose atmosphere, water table and sea economic dynamism, its culture of entrepreneurial initiative are exposed to strong pollution, aggravated by an unprece- and the competitive spirit of its inhabitants, but above all dented accumulation of industrial and domestic waste because of its privileged location strategically convenient for affecting the quality of life and raising citizen dissatisfaction.

However, this strategic location closure of the NPK plant, expansion of the wastewater col- also has its shady side. This decision has caused and is parts of the country, some new advanced industrial zones, still causing dramatic effects on the environment of Sfax. It has transformed the large-scale development projects delegated to international littoral into a place of diverse industrial and domestic dis- experts. Also, this decision has negatively impacted the approach based on reliable data and not biased by stake-.

The University of Sfax and its academic Author Biography experts have acquired and accumulated essential knowledge, Dr. He trained in Tunisia and then in Therefore, they can act as a wise and constructive interme- France where he graduated and obtained diary to bring positions closer together in order to under- his Ph.

School of Paris. He has co-published more than papers at national and inter- with all its regional components. The aim is to discuss these national journals. A road-map with of the National School of Engineers of Sfax, and President Rector of concrete proposals has to be created by involving an over- the University of Sfax — Water on Mars, on Jupiter Icy Moons, on Asteroids and hunting traces of water and ice and exploring new habit- perhaps even more water on more bodies of our solar system able environments.

The returned data reveals the similarities —Are water and life unique to Earth? The last decade of and discrepancies between our planets and the other bodies planetary exploration suggests that the liquid water, uniquely of the solar system. In this seminar dedicated to the general characterizing, our blue planet is potentially a transitional science audience, Dr. Heggy will present how low-frequency phase that other bodies of our solar system may have gone radar sounding methods are being used to explore evidences through or will be transiting to during their evolution.

On of buried Martian geological features, including possible Earth, as well as other bodies of the solar system, the geo- deep subsurface aquifers and ice deposits. He will also discuss the geology of the Earth, Moon, Venus, Mercury, comets and similarities between the Earth deserts and several plane- Mars—as well as numerous other bodies in our solar system tary environments in term of groundwater evolution.

Author Biography His research involves probing structural, hydrological and volcanic elements in terrestrial and planetary environments using different types of radar Essam Heggy is a Planetary Scientist at imaging and sounding techniques as well as measuring the electromagnetic the Viterbi School of Engineering in the properties of rocks in the radar frequency range.

He is also a contributing Astronomy and Astrophysics with a scientist to several proposed planetary and terrestrial radar imaging and major in Space and Planetary sciences soundings experiments and participated in several NASA radar mission respectively in and with dis- concept design.

Houston, Texas. Waste discharge from pharmaceutical pharmaceutical model contminant CHD under UV irredia- industries is a major source of water pollution and is tion mentioned by Achilleos et al.

The increasing day by day Giraldo et al. Due to stringent progress of the reaction was monitored by absorbing and environmental regulations it is necessary to remove the measuring the reduction in COD and TOC throughout the active component from the waste discharge before throwing experiment. In ence of UV irradiation. Two catalyst systems of titanium dioxide photocatalyst S. Chlorhexidine digluconate solution J. A batch. Chakraborty et al. The distance of sample solution upper surface to the radiation source maintained during the photodegradation pro- cess was 7 cm, and the reaction solution thickness was 3 cm.

The effect of ability of the substrate on to catalyst surface. This is probably due to pH. In the which is likely because of enhanced formation of an electron mentioned range of experimental process conditions for hole, facilitating the photocatalytic degradation. The decreasing degradation behavior of the CHD for the Cat1 system.

At a given wavelength, UV intensity determines the extent of radiation absorbed by the semiconductor catalyst. The rate of initiation of photocatalysis, the electron hole formation in the photochemical reaction is strongly dependent on the UV Fig. Degradation of antibiotic norfloxacin in aqueous tron recombination rate under high UV-radiant flux. J Hazard Mater. Remediation of antiseptic components in wastewater by photocatalysis using 4 Conclusion TiO2 nanoparticles.

Ind Eng Chem Res. Ecotox Environ Safe. Under optimum reaction conditions, about Mansilla HD. Degradation of the antibiotic oxolinic acid by Bioresour Technol. Photocatalytic degradation from this study indicated that the TiO2 based system has a of pharmaceutical wastes by alginate supported TiO2 nanoparticles high potential to be utilized as a sustainable treatment in packed bed photo reactor PBPR.

Optimization of parameters on photocatalytic degradation of chloramphenicol using TiO2 as photocatalyst by response surface methodology. J Environ Sci. References ;22 8 Chem Eng J. In order to sustain the increasing yields and sustainable agriculture. Said Ghrabi developed in close collaboration with all the stakeholders. Gallegos and, therefore, improve the natural environment surrounding e-mail: angel. Rubio e-mail: raquelrubiopalma gmail. Morato 2 Materials and Methods e-mail: jordi.

The polluted e-mail: beatrizmissagia gmail. The agricultural runoff was treated in the buffer e-mail: carlos. Saad et al. The analyses were et al. Therefore, this system can be used for the carried out following standard methods Final report. Monitoring plan and Results April Final locations of pilot plants report. Sustainable technologies for water treatment. In: What is sustainable technology? Diffuse pollution from agriculture: a worldwide outlook.

Water Sci Technol. Viviani C. This is mainly due to its capability to comply with the allowed the economic viability of shale gas exploration from severe regulations on water quality—especially required for previously unattainable deposits.

Despite optimistic growth allowing water recycling or safe disposal—by enhancing projections from the U. Emerging technologies for worrying environmental and social implications, mostly for the ZLD desalination of shale gas wastewater include associated with elevated freshwater consumption and haz- thermal and membrane-based processes.

Thermal-based ardous wastewater generation Thomas et al. On the other hand,mem- environmental and public health impacts and enhancing brane distillation MD , forward osmosis FO , reverse osmo- overall sustainability of shale gas process Onishi et al. Hence, the ability of zero-liquid discharge basedprocesses.

However, thermal evaporation systems can be more advantageous than membrane ones for the zero-emission desalination of shale gas wastewater, as a result of their need V. Caballero for less intensive pretreatment and lower susceptibility to Institute of Chemical Process Engineering, University of Alicante, Ap. Correos 99, Alicante, Spain fouling and rusting problems that can be caused by the e-mail: viviani.

Onishi et al. Despite of the increasing worldwide interest on the imple- mentation of ZLD desalination systems, their intensive 3 Challenges of ZLD Desalination energy consumption and high related operating costs remain of Hypersaline Shale Gas Wastewater as obstacles for their further adoption. Even- location and formation geology, hydrofracturing fluid com- tually, stricter regulations on water quality and brine dis- position, as well as its contact time with shale deposits charges will play a key role towards the implementation of Lester et al.

Besides, the con- cleaner ZLD desalination systems in shale gas industry. Acknowledgements This project has received funding from Annual energy outlook with projections to Washing- Among all pollutants, removal of the elevated salt con- ton, DC: U.

Energy Information Administration, a. Desalin Water challenging because of the energy-intensive consumption Treat. International energy outlook Washington, DC: U. Energy required to achieve the ZLD brine conditions. In Onishi et al. Information Administration, b. Additionally, Linden KG. Desalination of shale gas produced water: A rigorous same well pad Thiel and Lienhard The elevated consumption of high-grade electrical energy J Clean Prod.

Shale gas flowback water to the raised energy consumption, high salt concentrations in desalination: Single vs multiple-effect evaporation with vapor the shale gas wastewater pose particular desalination chal- recompression cycle and thermal integration.

Process optimization for to changes in process temperature conditions, fouling and zero-liquid discharge desalination of shale gas flowback water scaling can reduce heat transfer in thermal systems and mass under uncertainty.

J Clean Prod. Lastly, jclepro. Toward strategic management of shale gas appropriate management of the generated solid brine should development: regional, collective impacts on water resources.

Environ also be addressed to avoid potential environmental impacts. Sci Policy. Desalination and reuse of Energy. The global rise of zero liquid discharge for future directions. Treating produced water from hydraulic 6b Co-precipitation of system selection. Radium with Barium and Strontium sulfate and its impact on the desal. Deliberating the ventional gas extraction. Wheat stands as the major source of food for most of the The study area included six governorates sited in northern Tunisian population Ammar et al.

In essential for any possible revision of management strategies. This is particularly relevant were generated by the LARS-WG Semenov and Stratono- considering that water scarcity is already quite remarkable in vitch Consequently, lower yields sound to To this end, projected future climate under two be well expected due to shorter growing seasons, increased IPCC SRES emission scenarios, A2 and B1, as drawn from heat and water stress.

Identifying adaptation measures likely the third version of the Hadley Centre Coupled Model to help reduce the climate change CC associated potential HadCM3 , were implemented.

Potential adapta- —; —; —, in respect of a simu- tion measures include improved yielding germplasm with lated historical climate relevant to the period — The relative yield change per unit increase in CO2 concentration was set to 0. The relative yield change in future conditions relevant to the baseline, as affected by CO2 concentration, was also computed.

Accurate estimation of potential DW yield change has to H. Hence, the. Annabi et al. This increase, in respect of the baseline, was highest for Bizerte increase appears to be rather pronounced in regard of the and Jandouba. Regarding the remaining two governorates of long-term future. Difference between the The main objective of this study was to evaluate the SRES related scenarios were relatively small.

Difference among the set development appeared to provide the highest impact on scenarios were relatively small regarding the immediate wheat yield shift. Highest wheat yield increase across the future, but even more pronounced with time, indicating entirety of cited sites and time periods was achieved via higher productivity change associated uncertainty esti- the A2 scenario. Among the locations, subject of study, mates over the more distant futures.

Bizerta appeared to score the highest positive change in — Effect of CO2 increase: as change in CO2 concentration wheat yield, while Kef registered the highest negative proves to be a global phenomenon, the relative yield relative yield change.

The relative across all locations. The yield Tunisia, assuming stable improvements in production increases were the smallest for the immediate future and technology.

Wheat in Tunisia. In the world wheat book. A history of wheat breeding, ;— Estimating medium-term future — than of the two other changes in crop productivity. Agric Ecosyst Environ. Concerning the long-term future, the effect ;— Nakicenovic N, Swart R.

Emissions scenarios. Yield change under scenario Press; Use of multi-model ensembles from yield potential increase, and yield gap reduction under global climate models for assessment of climate change impacts.

Clim Res. A2 scenario. Terrace gardens can absorb carbon dioxide the effect. Urban greenery may mitigate this as they can more plant matter, when grass dies or trees are cut down, remove carbon dioxide by storing carbon in substrates and that carbon is released back into the atmosphere.

But grass vegetation. In modern Urban society parks and gardens form plants also release carbon out of their root tips to fungi in the the largest proportion of public green spaces and also serve soil, when these roots or fungi die, they are eaten by some as the CO2 sequestration basin. The increasing built density microbes or worms and a portion of that carbon gets stabi- of cities, may result in lesser availability of land for such lized. It gets stuck onto a clay mineral and stays into the soil.

Even though imity to the city of Abha, Saudi Arabia. Abha is termed as in developed economies there is enough room for green top tourist destination in not only the Kingdom but also in spaces in urban areas, when it comes to serve the purpose of Middle East region as it is blessed with one of the highest carbon sequestration it fails miserably at most of the places.

The climatic conditions prevailing in King Khalid University are the same R. Hence the King Khalid University case e-mail: rakhan kku. Khan sent it successfully in larger urbanized areas. Khan et al. Even though smaller plants will absorb smaller amounts than trees they CO2 consists of one molecule of Carbon and 2 molecules of need much less space than trees and a number of plants can Oxygen even be grown on the same space required by one tree for The atomic weight of Carbon is 2.

Moreover, the vegetation growth depends on loca- The atomic weight of Oxygen is The Therefore, to determine the weight of carbon dioxide same thing can be said about the soil, the plantation it can sequestered in plants, vegetables etc. In order to promote carbon by 3. Last but not the least, as far as the vegetation is concerned no matter how small it is it should be there rather not having any plantation irrespective of size 3 Results and Discussion shape or origin. It is always better to have something than nothing.

The carbon sequestration also depends on the land fertility. An acre of nondegraded rangeland can sequester 2 Materials and Methods 0. Currently this area is totally unused and only be captured. To reduce the resources required for main- contains the installed water tanks. The subsurface 27,, 27, CO2e and 81,, 81, CO2e. The campus receives ample amount of rainfall annually to render the topography green for most of the time of the year.

The water 2. The major turf grasses water density of the plant which will vary according to the fertility requirement varies between — mm. However, it is of the soil and the particular variety is more important. For a reduced to — mm with drip irrigation or adsorption bush plant in a bed of up to 1 m wide one row in the middle system. And third, gov- on the weather and climatic condition.

These Star Nursery Since the smart system takes out 4 Conclusion the major maintenance requirements and is Terrace garden are not new but an old concept not widely self-sustainable even children and women at home can used for carbon sequestration as the water requirements take care of it without major concerns. Hence the concept and other maintenance needs made it release the carbon of smart terrace gardens is more feasible and user friendly dioxide back to atmosphere once its blooming period was than the previous conventional ones.

The government over. Although the study found that using the modern buildings can skip vegetable beds and replace it with techniques available and employing advanced ornamental and flower beds, making it a more aesthetical self-supporting systems for supporting the terrace gardens based than productive system.

On commercial buildings can reverse the traditional thoughts. With garden will be the optimum choices. The last choice will the advent of sub surface system and adsorption irrigation be with the owner of the building who can decide what he system the water requirement can be reduced by more would like his terrace to be used for.

The utilization of compost soil will reduce the unit weight of soil over conventional soil thus reducing References the extra design load on the building. The terrace gardens are a potent urban carbon sink which needs more prac- Ahearn A.

Sci American. Low Carbon Econ. Minimum water requirements of four turfgrasses not a major concern because of three reasons: First the in the transition zone. Star Nursery. How much should you water your shrubs and trees. Second, Saudi Nationals are highly fond of natural Starnote A. June It is therefore a major leverage for energy saving, especially in a Mediterranean country like Tunisia, 2 Materials and Methods which according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change IPCC would be subject to a rise in temperatures of We took as a corpus of study the city of Tunis, Tunisia.

This increase in temperature, especially in urban areas, This kind of climate is characterized by two large highly will increase the phenomenon of the urban heat island, contrasted seasons: a cool, mild winter and a hot, dry sum- which is the difference between the temperature between a mer.

We chose three morphologically different urban fabrics: city and the neighboring rural areas. First, there is discomfort The Medina of Tunis characterized by a dense neighborhood among city dwellers and then, it will increase the energy with narrow, deep, sinuous streets, and a system of resi- consumption dedicated to air conditioning. First, we tried to compare the typo-morphological indi- cators of the three fabrics.

The selected indicators for this S. First, urban morphology is e-mail: safa. Kharrat density, urban roughness, plant density and urban porosity. School of Architecture and Urban Planning, University of Carthage, Carthage, Tunisia In a second step, the morphology is studied at the level of the e-mail: fakherkharrat. Younsi and F. Then a microclimatic data measurement campaign was and therefore to overheating. Sub- which, the larger it is, the more it improves comfort. This increase substantially.

Inversely, the smaller the SVF is, the simulation was validated by comparing the measured and better the comfort is, and, this is due to the strong correlation simulated data. This is due, on carried out. Thus, we were able to evaluate the physical the one hand, to the effect of the shading resulting from the aspect of outdoor thermal comfort using the PMV Predicted buildings facing each other, and on the other hand it prevents Mean Vote and UTCI Universal Thermal Climate Index the phenomenon of radiative trapping which is the main indices.

For the psycho-physiological aspect of comfort, we cause of the overheating of the ambiant air. It should degree of comfort. Due to the cir- Grizzetti et al. The eutrophication and it is put at risk from direct and indirect GREEN-Rgrid code integrates a landscape routing model to impacts of human activities.

The to the readily available global raster data that can be easily spatial resolution is 5 arc-minute resolution 9. The nitrate N—NO3 , total nitrogen world. With respect to the original GREEN model, the dif- TN , orthophosphate P—PO4 and total phosphorus fuse sources DS were calculated as a function of the gross TP loads were successfully calibrated for the period — nutrient balance on agricultural land computed as the dif- baseline. The nutrient source apportionment and ference between the inputs for nitrogen: fertilizer applica- retention in basins, rivers and lakes were also assessed.

The S1 by weathering, nutrients transported via sediments and scenario gave more effective results than S2 in reducing TN wash-off from built-up areas. A Latin hypercube approach in combination with a robust model selection tool including visualization techniques were used to perform the sensitivity analysis and model calibration. A source apportionment analysis was also conducted to quantify the contribution of the different A.

Bouraoui sources to the total input to the river network. A global input dataset for all nutrient sources and export crop uptake was developed using the best readily Figure 1 shows the predicted versus the measured annual available data. The model was calibrated for the period nutrient loads obtained after calibration.

The PO4 and 0. Ludwig et al. Strobl et al. Figure 2 shows the spatial distribution of N-NO3 loads in the Mediterranean basins highlighting which basins contributed most to the pollution of the Sea. River flow forecasting through conceptual ranean region. J Hydrol Amsterdam. J Geophys Res: Biogeosciences. In: Pitagora, editor; Changes of nitrogen and phosphorus emission of nutrients. Global Change Biol. Water and nutrient Bouraoui F. T-history method and light scattering lead but also sodium sulphate that could be used for the based analysis have been carried out in order to calculate production of a very interesting material: Glauber salt, lar- respectively thermal properties and long term stability of gely used as phase change material for thermal energy such materials.

The recovery is carried out by crystallization of sulphate, which also allows the elimination of traces of heavy metals, toxic to the environment and damaging to 2 Materials and Methods health Atanasova et al. In particular in the phase of the pastel desulfurization in Samples of Glauber salt were prepared by sonication, which the lead sulfate is treated using carbonate or changing time and modality of additives addition, in order to hydroxide of sodium two reactions take place giving both the wide range of materials to study.

The analysis of thermal sodium sulphate as by-product. This latter could be used in properties and stability was carried out using samples made its decahydrate form as PCM. Consequently, additives obtained in different studies De Paola et al. Each need to be added in order to achieve an effective product. Arcuri of Yinping and Yi , with the introduction of a new Department of Mechanical, Energy and Management Engineering controlled heating and cooling chamber. The thermal analysis was carried out in the e-mail: vincenza.

De Paola et al. To sector. A refrigerated thermostat was utilized in order to avoid the sample overheating, sonication was not continu- obtain an adequate control of the environmental conditions.

Comparison Stability analysis has been carried out by means of in terms of thermal performances have been carried out to multiple light scattering method based on the Turbiscan identify composition and method of preparation able to technique, generally used for the dispersions characterization guarantee optimal PCM behaviour.

Four heating-cooling Mengual et al. The operating principle is based on cycles have been carried out for each samples. Turbiscan results, expressed in terms of dispersion is unstable De Paola et al. Destabilization backscattering permitted identifying the destabilization kinetics could be estimated by means of Turbiscan Stability phenomena that occurred in the samples.

Index TSI that is calculated on the raw data of Transmis- In both samples, the backscattering is variable throughout sion and BackScattering signals.

It sums up all the variations the cell, where flocculation took place. The analysis of in the sample, following the Eq. TSI does not depend on the product than the incident wavelength in such case equal to nm , quantity in the measuring cell. The higher the TSI is, the and it decreased with the mean diameter for initial particles stronger the destabilization is in the sample. Coupling the two methods it is possible to identify ther- The destabilization kinetics based on the computation of mal and structural parameters able to describe long term the TSI Turbiscan Stability Index in different time steps performances of different samples of recovered salts.

Stability is strictly related to the composition as well as to the methodology of preparation of the Glauber 3 Results and Discussion salt based PCMs. Visually, both samples appeared as homogeneous and stable dispersions, but the optical analysis Two different compositions were investigated, as reported in by Turbiscan highlighted the instability phenomena at long Table 1.

Sample II with higher content of salt. Desulphurization of lead cake by sodium carbonate and sodium hydroxide. J Univ Chem Technol Metall. Thermal and stability investigation of phase change material dispersions for thermal energy storage by T-history and optical methods.

Crossed analysis by T-history and Turbiscan for the characterization of PCM with and higher initial viscosity was characterized by a stronger Glauber salt. Determination of enthalpy sample I tended to stabilize the TSI value at long time —temperature curves of phase change materials with the periods.

Meas Sci Technol. Colloids Surf, A. Contributions to the optics of turbid media, particularly of of PCMs based on Glauber salt but it is necessary to colloidal metal solutions. Transl into English from Ann Phys optimize the preparation method. Telkes M. Thixotropic mixture and method of making same; Hence, soil erosion and nutrient runoff would decrease, while water The soil organic matter SOM appears to play a remarkable quality and soil resistance to compaction would certainly role in sustaining four major ecosystem services: resistance improve.

Since , conservation and soil biodiversity. Primarily composed of carbon, SOM agriculture CA has been introduced as an alternative for supports heterotrophic activity and a chemical mechanism maintaining sustainable agricultural systems in Tunisia.

Soil organic carbon Indeed, CA areas recorded an increase from 52 ha in to content is a function of land use, climate temperature and 14, ha in Regarding the Tunisian context, restoring and improving degraded agricultural lands through increased SOM should 2 Materials and Methods stand as a critically important undertaking, remarkably useful for addressing the soil threats. The experimental site is located at a farm in the Krib region Conservation agriculture, based on no-tillage or reduced Siliana governorate in northern Tunisia.

The soil is clay-loamy and the climate is semi-arid M. Souissi — mm average annual rainfall. Soil organic carbon TOC was determined R. Soil mineralization is followed up under laboratory conditions at B. Bahri et al. C0 to be higher on CT 7. Greenland et al. The low SOC content is due to a low appears to display a lower C0 but contributes highly to the crop residue restitution to soil after harvest, which consti- stabilization of SOC than the remaining rotations.

In this tutes a major impediment for CA success in Tunisia. For instance, tion Fig. It is between 7 and 77 incubation days. References Loveland P, Webb J.

Is there a critical level of organic mat er in the agricultural soils of temperate regions? A review. Soil Tillage Res. Soil organic carbon sequestration rates by tillage stability class of English and Welsh soils, using a water coherence and crop rotation: a global data analysis.

Soil Sci Soc test. J Soil Sci. Economic Climate change has a multitude of immediate and long-term developments in upstream countries and measures they impacts on water resources in Arab countries. These include might take to adapt to climate change are likely to put more flooding, drought, sea-level rise in estuaries, drying up of pressure on water resources in Egypt. Therefore, it is of rivers, poor water quality in surface and groundwater sys- prime importance for Egypt, amongst other Nile countries, to tems, precipitation and water vapor pattern distortions, and assess the hydrological impacts of climate change on the snow and land ice bad distribution.

These effects, when Nile River. Despite being at the bottom drastic warming occurring since Falkenmark ; end of the river, Egypt is the largest user of Nile waters at Hulme et al. Climate models agree on predicting a present. Several studies showed that the Nile is very sensi- continuation of this trend. Expected temperature increases in tive to temperature and precipitation changes mainly because Egypt range from 1.

The pro- rate of warming in summer than in winter Agrawala et al. Trends for precipitation are less use despite the inter-annual storage in Lake Nasser behind clear.

For Egypt, Agrawala et al. An example of Y. Gayar and Y. For the Blue Nile and the complex, involving both natural forces and anthropogenic equatorial lakes region climate models predict precipitation activities. This large the magnitude of the global problem they stand to bear uncertainty is mirrored in other studies and reflects the dif- some of the serious consequences.

These alter- and evaporation has to be taken into account. For the upper ations are already having serious impacts on the economy Blue Nile the means of Kim and Kaluarachchi , of several Arab countries, on food security throughout the Elshamy et al. It is certain, that natural of many disadvantaged people. Although no conclusive variability of rainfall will increase, which means an increase evidence is yet available to prove the cause and effect in frequency and strength of floods and droughts, and relationships between climate change and water resources potential shifts in rainfall seasons McSweeney et al.

These conditions will increase the Elshamy et al. From this uncertainty it is clear that any dis- innovation will further deepen the vulnerability and cussion of climate change impacts on conflict has to take impacts of climate change on water resources. Egypt, with its culturally important due to high fertility of the land. At the same time, the the global mean trends, especially in deltas and for coastal incentives for Egypt to cooperate with its neighbors will cities Nicholls et al.

According to Dasgupta et al. For a 0. Alexandria Governorate alone more than 1. Otherwise its stability cannot be Cascao ; Eid et al. Water and health in Egypt: an empirical analysis. Climate Change and Water Resources Management … World agriculture towards Hagenstad M, Smith J. Viewed 19 Nov Al-Youm A-M. Int J Water Resour Dev. Last Accessed 10 Oct Climate change and change: — Climate Res.

Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche change. Buchgesellschaft; Hydrologic impacts of climate IPCC. The regional impacts of climate change: an assessment of change on the Nile river basin: implications of the IPCC vulnerability. A special report of the intergovernmental panel on scenarios. Clim Change. Changing power relations in the Nile river basin: sity Press; Water Altern. Kim U, Kaluarachchi JJ. Prog Oceanogr. Kwadijk JCJ. The impact of consequences for its water management.

Bull Am Meteorol Soc ; 91 2 : — Africa with predicted climate change. Assessing the economic impacts opened for signature. In: Parry ML, July Impacts of climate change on editors. Contribution of scenarios. Impacts of climate change on Cambridge University Press; Blue Nile flows using bias-corrected GCM scenarios. Hydrol Earth World Bank. Strategic environmental assessment and integrated water Sys Sci. Nat Resour Forum. World Health Organization; Last Accessed 4 Oct Through this practical study in the Djelfa different segments of the olive value chain: area, produc- region, we tried to identify the socio-economic and technical tion, yields, performance, etc.

In the third phase, we treated our results using statistical tools the software SPSS , version 23 to back our analysis. In order to answer this question, several hypotheses have 3 Results and Discussion been formulated on the basis of the knowledge gained from the old and recent bibliographies, which we obtained during The analysis of the results obtained show the importance of our bibliographical research, and on the basis of interviews support actions on the development of agriculture in arid and with resource persons having relations with the study subject semi-arid regions Benziouche such as the olive sector Belkhiri et al.

As a result, L. Benziouche there has been an improvement in the main technical and Department of Agronomy, Biskra University, Biskra, Algeria economic parameters taken into account, namely the area of e-mail: leila. It has made a tremendous leap from K. Attallaoui et al. This has cient; the means put in place and for the objectives set resulted in improved productivity of olive farms, income, remain limited Belkhiri et al.

This and the standard of living of farmers. Also, this policy has is undoubtedly explained by several technical, sociolog- had many socio-economic impacts Benziouche The production system has undergone profound changes Belkhiri et al. Effects of natural and market ziouche On the other hand, an innovation in the risks management on results of steppe breeding system in Algeria.

Intern Refereed Res J. ISSN Many producers have seen a great improvement Benziouche SE. Revue chercheur. Univ Ouargla, Algeria; in their incomes as a result of the improvement of the added Annual Statistics of the Directorate of Agricultural improved their economic performance. Services of the Wilaya of Djelfa; New medit: mediterranean journal under conditions that favor planters. Serghini-Caid H, Elamrani A. Phytosterols composition of virgin olive oils from cultivars introduced in eastern Morocco in comparison to Picholine Marocaine.

J Mater Environ Sci. There has been renewed interest in olive growing in the Moreddu C. Over the pollutant from a line source, but only in the case where the last years, a number of air quality models have been wind is perpendicular to the emitting line source EPA developed to predict air pollution and set emission reduction It is therefore necessary to develop approximations strategies Metcalfea et al.

The for modeling atmospheric emission dispersion from a line results quality depends on the emission inventories. Vehicle source with a Gaussian formula. Several solutions have been emissions are usually estimated using two approaches: used by Gaussian models through literature.

Bottom-up or top-down. It is not always necessary, some- Our contribution, was an extension and improvement of times even impossible, to work with the most detailed the previous equations which further minimized the error model.

Using a simple model in a complex environment can due to Gaussian formulation for one or several line sources, easily lead to false conclusions Sturm et al. Although a. Emissions methodology the Gaussian dispersion formula provides an exact solution In both top-down and bottom-up approaches, the calcu- H. The methods are Universiapolis, Agadir, Morocco consistent if the calculation of the total emission gives the e-mail: gourgue e-polytechnique.

In the bottom-up approach, the emissions E ip, A. Ihlal ie. Gourgue et al. The total emissions can be 2 2pu cos h rz deff 2rz deff “! The chosen site for the is typical of a stochastic process Gourgue et al. The effect of the obstacles is visible.

References Mean SO2 concentrations at 3 pm in 2 m are shown in Fig. Atmos Environ. Evaluation and intercomparison ulated concentrations of SO2, throughout the studied day of open road line source models currently in use in the Nordic May, 19th This comparison shows that after taking countries.

BorealEnv Res. Predicting near-road PM2. Transportation Research reduced, throughout the day. Indeed, the relative error Record. J Transport Res Board. The average error for industrial source applications. J Appl Meteorol. Csanady GT. Turbulent diffusion in the environment. It was designed to generate emission invento- Samaras Z, et Zierock K. Volume 1: ries from reduced input information and adapted to the Methodology and Emission Factors, European Commission; In its dispersion part EPA.

Risk and exposure assessment to support the review of the no2 an improved model of line source has been developed, primary national ambient air quality standard.

North Carolina, USA: and tested. It provided some improvement in terms of U. Emissions of air pollutants, measurements, without being too demanding in computing resources. Stuttgart: Springer; The line sources are important sources of air pollution.

It is also tional science index Dispersion of the NOx emissions Parrish D. Critical evaluation of US on-road vehicle emission from chimneys around industrial area: case study of the company inventories. Study of the air pollutants dispersion emissions—intercomparison of different calculation methods.

Sci from several point sources using an improved Gaussian model. Total Environ. Venkatram A, Horst T. Modeling the impacts of Atmos Environ. On the impact of urban surface exchange parameterisations on air Vivanco M, Andrade M. Validation of the emission inventory in the quality simulations: the Athens case. Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area of Brazil, based on ambient concen- ;— The regional model.

Chapter 7B simulation algorithms in gaussian plume control strategies. Air quality in the mexico megacity. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers; III-special issues. In: Zannetti P, editor. Published by the Envir- Moussiopoulos N. Air quality in cities. Heidelberg: Springer; Coelli, T. Managi, Shunsuke, Lehmann, Erik E. Kerstens, Allen N. Humphrey, Finn R. Srinivas K. Agrell, Paulo M. Santos, Brophy Haney, A. Pollitt, Department of Economics.

George Emm. Tzeremes, Subhash C. Wilson, Valdmanis, Gosse A. Alserda, G. Cherchye, L. Marshall, Elizabeth P. Latruffe, L. Abid A. Niazi, Picazo Tadeo, Korhonen, Yang, H.

Hunt, Hans H. Weaver, Lychev, Andrey, Jerome Creel, Puenpatom, R. Per J. Dupont, David C. The determinants of U.

Benjamin M.


 
 

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