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Most of the parts in the bill of materials therefore, it wastes energy in the power grid. After reading this section, the around W. The inverter hardware. A drop-in replacement scenario should note this key difference. Although the inverter board can lift a heavier gate at Overview faster speeds, the rate of work is considerably less Figure 31 shows a top-level overview of the overall when driving a split-phase motor with no run capacitor.

As the motor spins, the microcontroller inserted for V systems with a V motor. Note: Please see Table 20 for configuration settings. Incorrect jumper settings may cause the board to malfunction. It is then rectified to a DC bus voltage. Each 15V power source is then down-converted to 5V from a linear regulator. The user interface uses optocouplers as isolation for safety issues.

The printed circuit board has a clear indicator in silkscreen that designates what is safe to touch. After validation passes, the user can use the inverter board as described in Table 7. Note the size and type of motor to be attached to the board. Program either the single-phase hex file or the three-phase hex file onto the board by using the header at P1.

Place a fuse into the fuse holder at F1 that can pass the rated motor current. Connect the three motor wires to terminal P4. Refer to Figure 3 for single-phase motor connections. Connect your input voltage of either V or V to terminal P3. Refer to Table 20 for jumper settings. Place the wiper in POT1 to its halfway point. Place the wiper in POT0 fully clockwise. Press either S0 and S1 to start the motor.

The motor should slowly ramp up to its maximum speed at Hz modulation. Slowly turn POT0 counterclockwise to slow the motor to a halt. Turning it fully counterclockwise will turn the motor in the opposite direction. Adjusting POT1 will trigger an automatic shutdown if the trip point threshold is met. The trip LED will illuminate when this happens. The user must press S0 or S1 to start up the motor again after an emergency shutdown event.

AN Feature Summary The inverter board was designed with flexibility in mind; therefore, some of the features listed in Table 8 can be omitted to optimize performance with cost. There is still plenty of space for the developer to use custom modifications. Table 9 shows how much code space and how many modules are used to meet the design specifications. All of the user interface requirements are isolated via two When switch 1 SW1 is pressed, the output voltage is four-channel optocouplers and a one-channel 3.

Table 11 lists the user interface inputs and outputs. The electrical specifications for the PIC16F and all of the enhanced mid-range 1 N Current Limit Control devices specify a maximum input low voltage of 0.

This means that for IOC to work correctly, an input The board provides two switch buttons and two should be higher than 2V when active and lower than potentiometers. There are also headers that provide 1V when inactive. The output is therefore approximately linear, The code has numerous comments surrounding all since the optocoupler LED does not have a linear I-V functions and important properties to help the reader curve.

Large currents in the 30 mA range are easily modify the operation. Some of the code used in consumed for each POT. The modulation routines in particular are to cause an interrupt-on-change IOC when either of based around this reference. Parts of the text will be them is used. This alleviates the CPU from constantly replicated throughout this chapter for convenience. The and 5. When switch 0 SW0 is pressed, it is considered active and the output voltage reads close to 5V, as seen in Equation 7.

The main line code is separated from the hardware of the inverter itself. The main loop consists of a simple state machine. IDLE Motor is off while polling for button presses. Soft-stop is performed gradually here until the motor has been stopped completely, or it brakes.

Upon entry, the motor starts in its IDLE state where the microcontroller initializes pins and stops the motor. The motor starts using the soft-start method where the frequency and voltage are adjusted in a linear fashion in order to slowly bring the motor up to operating speed.

The motor speed and current trip points are continuously polled in the main loop. If SW1 is pressed, the motor is stopped by either braking or by soft-stop. The state machine returns to state IDLE. AN A structure diagram of the important files and their methods and properties are shown in Figure No blocking code other and phase parameter and it saves all 64 values in a than this routine is within the ISR. All other interrupts pre-filled buffer.

The soft-start routine pace of are serviced outside of the interrupt vector to give increment is limited by how fast this routine can precedence to the modulation routines. When the motor is steadily running, the buffer will not change often, since the two inputs are typically This file acts as a facade to the main.

The constant. This is referenced in most other files. This position divided by the number of frequency, timer intervals, trip points, etc. This file is included in every source file. The ADC files are also referenced here for multiplexing purposes. No Any auxiliary No interrupts? Figure 36 shows a flowchart of the ISR. The majority of the software processing power is spent calculating the next PWM values and polling for user inputs, such as trip sensors and speed control.

Figure 37 shows the general overview of the driving stage. These sections are the primary the easiest way to generate a sine wave. The focus of the code. The sine values are read from the table at predefined intervals to create a specific modulation A global structure, mod, is kept in RAM, which frequency. Table 14 lists the three modulation structure to scale how fast or slow the modulation moves through members.

This variable can therefore be left to overflow. The lower eight bits of the Frequency pointer variable can be viewed as fractional bits. The voltage parameter is derived the modulation frequency by 0. This PWM frequency will result in a different resolution. Equation The voltage sampling rate can be If value is added to delta at each PWM interrupt, then the resultant modulation will be 60 Hz.

The source of this method is AN listed under Reference 7. For duty cycle. These scaled values are saved in a more information, please refer to pages 5, 6 and 9 of byte array in RAM for quick access in the ISR. It the above-mentioned application note. Checks are in place to ensure that the voltage does not go below the pre-configured minimum value. CalcPhase define. The entire configuration is within a takes the scaled POT0 reading as an input and returns common. Other defines, which depend on the a value between 0 and These defines should be modified with ideal frequencies to ensure that the voltage is held extreme care.

This is called every TMR2 overflow. The returned If this is commented out, it will value from the sine table is assigned to the first PWM disable CLC4 from outputting pointer variable. This is second and third phase outputs after the angle DEBUG used primarily as one of the parameter is incremented according to the predefined tests in the acceptance phase offset. A value of 0x between modulation document see Section outputs will generate a degree phase shift. It on this as a heartbeat. General experiences have operational frequency.

High-switching frequencies can also cause bearing damages. However, a switching frequency increase results in the motor voltage FFT improvement and, therefore, it tends to improve the motor thermal performance besides reducing noise.

The default code already contains three predefined frequencies of: 1. The frequencies above were selectively chosen so as to minimize the overhead in calculations by using powers of 2 shifts only for multiplication and division. An isolated user input is labeled as being active when the input on the isolated side is driven high at typically 5V.

Table 17 shows the relative user configurable defines. Rotating the POT counter clockwise from the fully clockwise position will decrease the motor from full speed to idle and then full speed in reverse, as seen in Figure The biasing of S1 and S2, as well as all of the auxiliary inputs, is designed to allow the greatest voltage differential between the shared active elements.

This is achieved by carefully-selected resistors in a voltage divider network. This network provides a small voltage reading that is proportional to the current in the motor, as seen in Table Use this setting if the user wishes to reallocate the current trip POT to some other usage. Make this a multiple of 2 for code speed.

A low-cost solution is one that selects the minimum amount of parts with as little performance overhead as possible to run the application. Table 19 highlights some components that limit the flexibility of the inverter board. This design ensures that under full load, none of the components will be performing out of specification. This section will explore design limitations and optimizations that can be made. AN DC Bus Voltage Capacitors The voltage doubler consists of two capacitors that can optionally be configured by a single jumper W1 to The default DC bus capacitors have a capacitance of double the input voltage, as seen in Figure Too much heat dissipation will prematurely V Voltage V damage the capacitor.

The ripple current is related to the ripple voltage. The input frequency, or refresh rate, for the DC 12 13 in capacitors and total capacitance bank varies depending on whether the voltage doubler jumper is inserted. The driving stage uses an International Rectifier three-phase gate driver for high-voltage applications. If the W1 jumper is inserted, then the voltage across The design consideration between selecting FETs or both ends of the capacitors will be as seen in IGBTs is usually a function of switching frequency and Equation The IGBT in this particular voltage, but at a cost of increased ripple voltage and D2Pak can, therefore, dissipate up to 3.

If this happens, the capacitors 1. The FET can handle 2. It is Each capacitor will only see one half of the sine wave critical that the designer should note that the data sheet cycle.

Therefore, the ripple voltage for the voltage specification of maximum current does not imply that doubler scenario will have a frequency that reflects the the device can handle that amount without a heat sink input frequency on a ratio see Equation AN Lower current applications will benefit from using FETs, Do not replace the fast-acting with general purpose while higher current applications with larger motors diodes. The diodes must be fast-acting in order to should use IGBTs.

Once the capacitors are energized, the resistance of the NTC will decrease rapidly to a very low value. A few items of data are needed to scale an inrush current limiter: 1. Load capacitance of device to be protected 2. Steady-state current IMAX and maximum ambient temperature 3. Required reduction of inrush current to determine R25 of NTC inrush current limiters 4. For further details, please see Epcos application note The designer should determine the trade offs of the two listed under Reference 9.

Besides the switching elements, another design issue is the selection of gate resistors and bootstrap diodes and capacitors. The designer should be careful not to make this transition too slow in proportion to the switching frequency; if this condition is not met, the element will never switch full on or off. Please see Reference 11 from Avago Technologies for information in selecting the correct gate resistor. The diodes must be fast-acting in order to preserve the charge on the capacitors.

Its ambient resistance at rectified DC voltage into two separate and isolated room temperature is 2 Ohms, which should limit the power supplies. The designer should also instead of the microcontroller. A lower cost solution check the diode bridge to ensure that the peak current should dedicate a PWM module plus other monitoring is within the ratings.

Using multilevel linear model analysis, oblique aortic and pulmonary slices showed systematic higher offsets than the transverse aortic slices oblique aortic 0.

The exploratory measurements beyond the protocol yielded some new leads for further sequence development towards reduction of velocity offsets; however those protocols were not always compatible with the time-constraints of breath-hold. Comparison of breathhold , navigator-triggered, and free-breathing diffusion-weighted MRI for focal hepatic lesions. To compare the breathhold , navigator-triggered, and free-breathing techniques in diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging MRI for the evaluation of focal liver lesions on a 3.

Fifty-two patients 36 men, 16 women; mean age, A total of 74 lesions 50 malignant, 24 benign were evaluated. The detection sensitivity and characterization accuracy were also compared. The ADC values of the liver and focal lesions measured using the three DWI techniques were not significantly different and showed good correlation. For lesion detection and characterization, there were no significant differences between breathhold and non- breathhold DWI. Both breathhold and non- breathhold DWI are comparable for the detection or characterization of focal liver lesions at 3.

In addition, although free-breathing and navigator-triggered DWI sequences show similar performance for 3. Hyperbaric nitrogen prolongs breath-holding time in humans. Either an increase in PaCO 2 or a decrease in PaO 2 , can affect respiratory stimulation through respiratory centers, thus influencing breath-holding time BHT. This study was designed to determine whether and how hyperbaric air could influence BHT in comparison with hyperbaric oxygen in humans.

We studied 36 healthy volunteers in a multiplace hyperbaric chamber. BHT, pulse oximeter, and transcutaneous carbon dioxide tension were measured at 1 and 2. The prolongation of BHT in hyperbaric air is significantly greater than that in hyperbaric oxygen. Breath-holding time is significantly prolonged in hyperbaric air than it is in hyperbaric oxygen.

The mechanism involves the anesthetic effect of nitrogen suppressing the suffocating feeling during breath-holding. To present our clinical workflow of incorporating AlignRT for left breast deep inspiration breath-hold treatments and the dosimetric considerations with the deep inspiration breath-hold protocol.

Patients with stage I to III left-sided breast cancer who underwent lumpectomy or mastectomy were considered candidates for deep inspiration breath-hold technique for their external beam radiation therapy.

Treatment plans were created on both free-breathing and deep inspiration breath-hold computed tomography for each patient to determine whether deep inspiration breath-hold was beneficial based on dosimetric comparison.

The AlignRT system was used for patient setup and monitoring. Dosimetric measurements and their correlation with chest wall excursion and increase in left lung volume were studied for free-breathing and deep inspiration breath-hold plans. Deep inspiration breath-hold plans had significantly increased chest wall excursion when compared with free breathing. This change in geometry resulted in reduced mean and maximum heart dose but did not impact lung V 20 or mean dose.

The correlation between chest wall excursion and absolute reduction in heart or lung dose was found to be nonsignificant, but correlation between left lung volume and heart dose showed a linear association. It was also identified that higher levels of chest wall excursion may paradoxically increase heart or lung dose. Reduction in heart dose can be achieved for many left-sided breast and chest wall patients using deep inspiration breath-hold.

Chest wall excursion as well as left lung volume did not correlate with reduction in heart dose, and it remains to be determined what metric will provide the most optimal and reliable dosimetric advantage. Effects of depth and chest volume on cardiac function during breath-hold diving. Cardiac response to breath-hold diving in human beings is primarily characterized by the reduction of both heart rate and stroke volume.

We hypothesized that underwater re-expansion of the chest would release heart constriction and normalize cardiac function. To this aim, 10 healthy male subjects age During the same session, all subjects were also studied at surface full-body immersion and at 5-m depth in order to better characterize the relationship of echo-Doppler pattern with depth. In conclusion the diving response, already evident during shallow diving 5 m did not progress during deeper dives 10 m.

The rapid improvement in systolic and diastolic function observed after lung volume expansion is congruous with the idea of a constrictive effect on the heart exerted by chest squeeze. Breath-holds are a readily accessible method for producing the required arterial CO2 increases but their implementation into clinical studies is limited by concerns that patients will demonstrate highly variable performance of breath-hold challenges.

This study assesses the repeatability of CVR measurements despite poor task performance, to determine if and how robust results could be achieved with breath-holds in patients. Twelve healthy volunteers were scanned at 3 T. Six functional scans were acquired, each consisting of 6 breath-hold challenges 10, 15, or 20 s duration interleaved with periods of paced breathing. These scans simulated the varying breath-hold consistency and ability levels that may occur in patient data.

Uniform ramps, time-scaled ramps, and end-tidal CO2 data were used as regressors in a general linear model in order to measure CVR at the grey matter, regional, and voxelwise level.

The intraclass correlation coefficient ICC quantified the repeatability of the CVR measurement for each breath-hold regressor type and scale of interest across the variable task performances. The ramp regressors did not fully account for variability in breath-hold performance and did not achieve acceptable repeatability ICC 0. Further analysis of intra-subject CVR variability across the brain ICCspatial and voxelwise correlation supported the use of end-tidal CO2 data to extract robust whole-brain CVR maps, despite variability in breath-hold performance.

We conclude that the incorporation of end-tidal CO2 monitoring into scanning enables robust, repeatable. Do elite breath-hold divers suffer from mild short-term memory impairments? Repeated apneas are associated with severe hypoxemia that may ultimately lead to loss of consciousness in some breath-hold divers.

Despite increasing number of practitioners, the relationship between apnea-induced hypoxia and neurocognitive functions is still poorly understood in the sport of free diving.

To shed light onto this phenomenon, we examined the impact of long-term breath-hold diving training on attentional processing, short-term memory, and long-term mnesic and executive functions.

Thirty-six men matched for age, height, and weight were separated into the following 3 groups: i 12 elite breath-hold divers EBHD , mean static apnea best time s, months mean apnea experience; ii 12 novice breath-hold divers, mean best time s, 8. We used breath-holding during inspiration as a model to study the effect of pulmonary stretch on sympathetic nerve activity. Prolonged dry apnoea: effects on brain activity and physiological functions in breath-hold divers and non-divers.

The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of voluntary breath-holding on brain activity and physiological functions. We hypothesised that prolonged apnoea would trigger cerebral hypoxia, resulting in a decrease of brain performance; and the apnoea’s effects would be more pronounced in breath-hold divers. Trained breath-hold divers and non-divers performed maximal dry breath-holdings. Lung volume, alveolar partial pressures of O2 and CO2, attention and anxiety levels were estimated.

Heart rate, blood pressure, arterial blood oxygenation, brain tissue oxygenation, EEG, and DC potential were monitored continuously during breath-holding. There were a few significant changes in electrical brain activity caused by prolonged apnoea. Brain tissue oxygenation index and DC potential were relatively stable up to the end of the apnoea in breath-hold divers and non-divers. We also did not observe any decrease of attention level or speed of processing immediately after breath-holding.

Interestingly, trained breath-hold divers had some peculiarities in EEG activity at resting state before any breath-holding : non-spindled, sharpened alpha rhythm; slowed-down alpha with the frequency nearer to the theta band; and untypical spatial pattern of alpha activity. Our findings contradicted the primary hypothesis.

Apnoea up to 5 min does not lead to notable cerebral hypoxia or a decrease of brain performance in either breath-hold divers or non-divers. It seems to be the result of the compensatory mechanisms similar to the diving response aimed at centralising blood circulation and reducing peripheral O2 uptake. Adaptive changes during apnoea are much more prominent in trained breath-hold divers. Optimization of single shot 3D breath-hold non-enhanced MR angiography of the renal arteries.

Cardiac and navigator-gated, inversion-prepared non-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography techniques can accurately depict the renal arteries without the need for contrast administration. However, the scan time and effectiveness of navigator-gated techniques depend on the subject respiratory pattern, which at times results in excessively prolonged scan times or suboptimal image quality.

A single-shot 3D magnetization-prepared steady-state free precession technique was implemented to allow the full extent of the renal arteries to be depicted within a single breath-hold. Technical optimization of the breath-hold technique was performed with fourteen healthy volunteers.

An alternative magnetization preparation scheme was tested to maximize inflow signal. Quantitative and qualitative comparisons were made between the breath-hold technique and the clinically accepted navigator-gated technique in both volunteers and patients on a 1. The breath-hold technique provided an average of seven fold reduction in imaging time, without significant loss of image quality. Comparable single-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios of intra- and extra-renal arteries were found between the breath-hold and the navigator-gated techniques in volunteers.

Furthermore, the breath-hold technique demonstrated good image quality for diagnostic purposes in a small number of patients in a pilot study. The single-shot, breath-hold technique offers an alternative to navigator-gated methods for non-enhanced renal magnetic resonance angiography. The initial results suggest a potential supplementary clinical role for the breath-hold technique in the evaluation of suspected renal artery diseases.

Glide-Hurst, Carri K. Purpose: To evaluate intra- and interfraction variability of tumor and lung volume and position using a hybrid active breath-hold gating technique. Methods and Materials: A total of repeat normal inspiration active breath-hold CTs were acquired weekly during radiotherapy for 9 lung cancer patients scans per patient.

A physician delineated the gross tumor volume GTV , lungs, and spinal cord on the first breath-hold CT, and contours were propagated semiautomatically. Intra- and interfraction variability of tumor and lung position and volume were evaluated. Tumor centroid and border variability were quantified. Results: On average, intrafraction variability of lung and GTV centroidmore » position was 0.

Increases in free-breathing tidal volume were associated with increases in breath-hold ipsilateral lung volume p breath-hold technique was reproducible within 2 mm during each fraction. Interfraction variability of GTV position and shape was substantial because of tumor volume and breath-hold lung volume change during therapy. These results support the feasibility of a hybrid breath-hold gating technique and suggest that online image guidance would be beneficial.

Underwater study of arterial blood pressure in breath-hold divers. Knowledge regarding arterial blood pressure ABP values during breath-hold diving is scanty.

It derives from a few reports of measurements performed at the water’s surface, showing slight or no increase in ABP, and from a single study of two simulated deep breath-hold dives in a hyperbaric chamber.

Simulated dives showed an increase in ABP to values considered life threatening by standard clinical criteria. For the first time, using a novel noninvasive subaquatic sphygmomanometer, we successfully measured ABP in 10 healthy elite breath-hold divers at a depth of 10 m of freshwater mfw. ABP was measured in dry conditions, at the surface head-out immersion , and twice at a depth of 10 mfw. Underwater measurements of ABP were obtained in all subjects.

Each measurement lasted s and was accomplished without any complications or diver discomfort. No significant statistical differences were found when blood pressure measurements at the water surface were compared with breath-hold diving conditions at a depth of 10 mfw. However, our results cannot be extended over environmental conditions different from those of the present study.

Harouni, Ahmed A. Purpose An external driver-free MRI method for assessment of liver fibrosis offers a promising non-invasive tool for diagnosis and monitoring of liver disease. However, MR tagging requires multiple breath-hold acquisitions and substantial post-processing.

Additionally, a new method is introduced to measure heart-induced shear wave velocity SWV inside the liver. Methods Phantom and in-vivo experiments 11 healthy subjects, and 11 patients with liver fibrosis were conducted.

Reproducibility experiments were performed in seven healthy subjects. Results Peak liver strain Sp significantly decreased in fibrotic liver compared healthy liver 6. The two measures significantly separate healthy subjects from patients with fibrotic liver. Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of 3D single breath-hold late gadolinium enhancement LGE of the left ventricle LV using supplemental oxygen and hyperventilation and compressed-sensing acceleration. Semi-quantitative grading of overall image quality, motion artifact, myocardial nulling, and diagnostic value was performed by consensus of two blinded observers.

Velocity encoding with the slice select refocusing gradient for faster imaging and reduced chemical shift-induced phase errors. To investigate a novel phase-contrast MRI velocity-encoding technique for faster imaging and reduced chemical shift-induced phase errors. Velocity encoding with the slice select refocusing gradient achieves the target gradient moment by time shifting the refocusing gradient, which enables the use of the minimum in-phase echo time TE for faster imaging and reduced chemical shift-induced phase errors.

Improved net forward flow agreement was measured across all vessels for slice select refocused gradient compared to flow compensated and flow encoded : aAo vs. To evaluate the feasibility of three-dimensional 3D single breath-hold late gadolinium enhancement LGE of the left ventricle LV using supplemental oxygen and hyperventilation and compressed-sensing acceleration.

Semiquantitative grading of overall image quality, motion artifact, myocardial nulling, and diagnostic value was performed by consensus of two blinded observers. Dosimetric comparison of moderate deep inspiration breath-hold and free-breathing intensity-modulated radiotherapy for left-sided breast cancer. This study determined the dosimetric comparison of moderate deep inspiration breath-hold using active breathing control and free-breathing intensity-modulated radiotherapy IMRT after breast-conserving surgery for left-sided breast cancer.

Thirty-one patients were enrolled. One free breathe and two moderate deep inspiration breath-hold images were obtained. A field-in-field-IMRT free-breathing plan and two field-in-field-IMRT moderate deep inspiration breath-holding plans were compared in the dosimetry to target volume coverage of the glandular breast tissue and organs at risks for each patient.

The breath-holding time under moderate deep inspiration extended significantly after breathing training P breath-holding in the target volume coverage. The volume of the ipsilateral lung in the free-breathing technique were significantly smaller than the moderate deep inspiration breath-holding techniques P breath-holding plans.

The dose to ipsilateral lung, coronary artery and heart in the field-in-field-IMRT were significantly lower for the free-breathing plan than for the two moderate deep inspiration breath-holding plans all P breath-holding plans. The whole-breast field-in-field-IMRT under moderate deep inspiration breath-hold with active breathing control after breast-conserving surgery in left-sided breast cancer can reduce the irradiation volume and dose to organs at risks.

There are no significant differences between various moderate deep inspiration breath-holding states in the dosimetry of irradiation to the field-in-field-IMRT target volume. Asystole and increased serum myoglobin levels associated with ‘packing blackout’ in a competitive breath-hold diver. Many competitive breath-hold divers use ‘glossopharyngeal insufflation’, also called ‘lung packing’, to overfill their lungs above normal total lung capacity.

This increases intrathoracic pressure, decreases venous return, compromises cardiac pumping, and reduces arterial blood pressure, possibly resulting in a syncope breath-hold divers call ‘packing blackout’. We report a case with a breath-hold diver who inadvertently experienced a packing blackout. During the incident, an electrocardiogram ECG and blood pressure were recorded, and blood samples for determinations of biomarkers of cardiac muscle perturbation creatine kinase-MB isoenzyme CK-MB , cardiac troponin-T TnT , and myoglobin were collected.

The ECG revealed short periods of asystole during the period of ‘packing blackout’, simultaneous with pronounced reductions in systolic, diastolic, and pulse pressures. Serum myoglobin concentration was elevated 40 and min after the incident, whereas there were no changes in CK-MB or TnT. The ultimate cause of syncope in this diver probably was a decrease in cerebral perfusion following glossopharyngeal insufflation.

The asystolic periods recorded in this diver could possibly indicate that susceptible individuals may be put at risk of a serious cardiac incident if the lungs are excessively overinflated by glossopharyngeal insufflation. This concern is further substantiated by the observed increase in serum myoglobin concentration after the event. Paced respiration with end-expiration technique offers superior BOLD signal repeatability for breath-hold studies.

As a simple, non-invasive method of blood oxygenation level-dependent BOLD signal calibration, the breath-hold task offers considerable potential for the quantification of neuronal activity from functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI measurements. With an aim to improve the precision of this calibration method, the impact of respiratory rate control on the BOLD signal achieved with the breath-hold task was investigated. In addition to self-paced breathing, three different computer-paced breathing rates were imposed during the periods between end-expiration breath-hold blocks.

The resulting BOLD signal timecourses and statistical activation maps were compared in eleven healthy human subjects.

Results indicate that computer-paced respiration produces a larger peak BOLD signal increase with breath-hold than self-paced breathing, in addition to lower variability between trials. This is due to the more significant post-breath-hold signal undershoot present in self-paced runs, a characteristic which confounds the definition of baseline and is difficult to accurately model.

Interestingly, the specific respiratory rate imposed between breath-hold periods generally does not have a statistically significant impact on the BOLD signal change. This result can be explained by previous reports of humans adjusting their inhalation depth to compensate for changes in rate, with the end-goal of maintaining homeostatic ventilation. The advantage of using end-expiration relative to end-inspiration breath-hold is apparent in view of the high repeatability of the BOLD signal in the present study, which does not suffer from the previously reported high variability associated with uncontrolled inspiration depth when using the end-inspiration technique.

The aim of this study was to assess the validity and accuracy of a commercial linear encoder Musclelab, Ergotest, Norway to estimate Bench press 1 repetition maximum 1RM from the force – velocity relationship. Twenty seven physical education students and teachers 5 women and 22 men with a heterogeneous history of strength training participated in this study. They performed a 1 RM test and a force – velocity test using a Bench press lifting task in a random order.

Mean 1 RM was Additional studies are required to determine whether accuracy is affected by age, sex or initial level. Key pointsSome commercial devices allow to estimate 1 RM from the force- velocity relationship.

These estimations are valid. However, their accuracy is not high enough to be of practical help for training intensity prescription. Day-to-day reliability of force and velocity measured by the linear encoder has been shown to be very high, but the specific reliability of 1 RM estimated from the force- velocity relationship has to be determined before concluding to the usefulness of this approach in the monitoring of training induced adaptations.

Key points Some commercial devices allow to estimate 1 RM from the force- velocity relationship. Breath-hold device for laboratory rodents undergoing imaging procedures. The increased use in noninvasive imaging of laboratory rodents has prompted innovative techniques in animal handling.

Lung imaging of rodents can be a difficult task because of tissue motion caused by breathing, which affects image quality. The use of a prototype flat-panel computed tomography unit allows the acquisition of images in as little as 2, 4, or 8 s. This short acquisition time has allowed us to improve the image quality of this instrument by performing a breath-hold during image acquisition.

We designed an inexpensive and safe method for performing a constant-pressure breath-hold in intubated rodents. Initially a prototypic manual 3-way valve system, consisting of a 3-way valve, an air pressure regulator, and a manometer, was used to manually toggle between the ventilator and the constant-pressure breath-hold equipment.

The success of the manual 3-way valve system prompted the design of an electronically actuated valve system. In the electronic system, the manual 3-way valve was replaced with a custom designed 3-way valve operated by an electrical solenoid. The electrical solenoid is triggered by using a hand-held push button or a foot pedal that is several feet away from the gantry of the scanner.

This system has provided improved image quality and is safe for the animals, easy to use, and reliable. Premotor neurons encode torsional eye velocity during smooth-pursuit eye movements. Responses to horizontal and vertical ocular pursuit and head and body rotation in multiple planes were recorded in eye movement-sensitive neurons in the rostral vestibular nuclei VN of two rhesus monkeys.

When tested during pursuit through primary eye position, the majority of the cells preferred either horizontal or vertical target motion. During pursuit of targets that moved horizontally at different vertical eccentricities or vertically at different horizontal eccentricities, eye angular velocity has been shown to include a torsional component the amplitude of which is proportional to half the gaze angle “half-angle rule” of Listing’s law.

Multiple linear regression analysis revealed a significant contribution of torsional eye movement sensitivity to the responsiveness of the cells. These findings suggest that many VN neurons encode three-dimensional angular velocity , rather than the two-dimensional derivative of eye position, during smooth-pursuit eye movements.

Although no clear clustering of pursuit preferred-direction vectors along the semicircular canal axes was observed, the sensitivity of VN neurons to torsional eye movements might reflect a preservation of similar premotor coding of visual and vestibular-driven slow eye movements for both lateral-eyed and foveate species. Purpose: To study the oxygen saturation SO2 and breath-holding time variation applied active breathing control ABC in radiotherapy of tumor.

And the patient monitor was used to observe the oxygen saturation SO2 variation. The variation of SO2, and length of breath-holding time and the time for recovering to the initial value of SO2 were recorded and analyzed.

And the breath-holding time shortened obviously for patients whose SO2 did not recover to normal. It is necessary to check the SO2 variation in breath training, and enough time should be given to recover SO2. We describe a clinical case study surrounding the behavioral assessment and operant treatment of, an adult with severe mental retardation who engaged in chronic breath-holding. In this clinical case, previous neurological and medical testing had ruled out biological bases for the individual’s breath-holding.

A functional behavioral assessment…. Agreement and repeatability of vascular reactivity estimates based on a breath-hold task and a resting state scan. By complementing a task-related BOLD acquisition with a vascular reactivity measure obtained through breath-holding or hypercapnia, this unwanted variance can be statistically reduced in the BOLD responses of interest. Recently, it has been suggested that vascular reactivity can also be estimated using a resting state scan.

This study aimed to compare three breath-hold based analysis approaches block design, sine—cosine regressor and CO2 regressor and a resting state approach CO2 regressor to measure vascular reactivity. We tested BOLD variance explained by the model and repeatability of the measures. Fifteen healthy participants underwent a breath-hold task and a resting state scan with end-tidal CO2 being recorded during both.

Maps and regional vascular reactivity estimates showed high repeatability when the breath-hold task was used. Repeatability and variance explained by the CO2 trace regressor were lower for the resting state data based approach, which resulted in highly variable measures of vascular reactivity.

We conclude that breath-hold based vascular reactivity estimations are more repeatable than resting-based estimates, and that there are limitations with replacing breath-hold scans by resting state scans for vascular reactivity assessment.

Both CO 2 inhalation followed by hyperventilation and breath-holding have been utilized to measure cerebral vasomotor reactivity VMR but their correlation has been poorly studied and understood. A retrospective study was conducted in subjects The mean BHI was 0. Move dish and sample into the cell culture This study aimed to compare three breath-hold based analysis approaches block design, sine-cosine regressor and CO2 regressor and a resting state approach CO2 regressor to measure vascular reactivity.

Published by Elsevier Inc. Boson sampling is a problem strongly believed to be intractable for classical computers, but can be naturally solved on a specialized photonic quantum simulator. The protocol requires only one single-photon source, two detectors, and a loop-based interferometer for an arbitrary number of photons. The single-photon pulse train is time-bin encoded and deterministically injected into an electrically programmable multimode network.

The observed three- and four-photon boson sampling rates are Volumetric velocity measurements in restricted geometries using spiral sampling : a phantom study. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of maximum velocity measurements using volumetric phase-contrast imaging with spiral readouts in a stenotic flow phantom.

In a phantom model, maximum velocity , flow, pressure gradient, and streamline visualizations were evaluated using volumetric phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging MRI with velocity encoding in one extending on current clinical practice and three directions for characterization of the flow field using spiral readouts.

Results of maximum velocity and pressure drop were compared to computational fluid dynamics CFD simulations, as well as corresponding low-echo-time TE Cartesian data. Flow was compared to 2D through-plane phase contrast PC upstream from the restriction. Results obtained with 3D through-plane PC as well as 4D PC at shortest TE using a spiral readout showed excellent agreements with the maximum velocity values obtained with CFD velocity location, as well as the accurate velocity quantification can be obtained in stenotic regions using short-TE spiral volumetric PC imaging.

Marijuana smoking: effects of varying puff volume and breathhold duration. Two studies were conducted to quantify biological and behavioral effects resulting from exposure to controlled doses of marijuana smoke.

Each study also varied levels of delta 9-tetrahydro-cannabinol marijuana cigarette content 1. Subjects smoked 10 puffs in each of six sessions; a seventh, nonsmoking session all measures recorded at the same times as in active smoking sessions served as a control. Variations in puff volume produced significant dose-related changes in postsmoking plasma delta 9-tetrahydro-cannabinol levels, carbon monoxide boost and subjective effects e.

In contrast, breathholding for 10 or 20 sec versus 0 sec increased plasma delta 9-tetrahydro-cannabinol levels but not CO boost or subjective effects. Task performance measures were not reliably influenced by marijuana smoke exposure within the dosing ranges examined. These findings confirm the utility of the controlled smoking technology, support the notion that cumulative puff volume systematically influences biological exposure and subjective effects, but cast doubt on the common belief that prolonged breathholding of marijuana smoke enhances classical subjective effects associated with its reinforcing value in humans.

Zhang, Ziheng; Dione, Donald P. A novel MR imaging technique, spatial modulation of magnetization with polarity alternating velocity encoding SPAMM-PAV , is presented to simultaneously examine the left ventricular early diastolic temporal relationships between myocardial deformation and intra-cavity hemodynamics with a high temporal resolution of 14 ms.

This approach is initially evaluated in a dynamic flow and tissue mimicking phantom. A comparison of regional longitudinal strains and intra-cavity pressure differences integration of computed in-plane pressure gradients within a selected region in relation to mitral valve inflow velocities is performed in eight normal volunteers.

Our results demonstrate that apical regions have higher strain rates 0. This pattern is reversed during the deceleration period, when the strain-rates in the basal regions are the highest 0. A positive base-to-apex gradient in peak pressure difference is observed during acceleration, followed by a negative base-to apex gradient during deceleration. These studies shed insight into the regional volumetric and pressure difference changes in the left ventricle during early diastolic filling.

Breast tumor hemodynamic response during a breath-hold as a biomarker to predict chemotherapeutic efficacy: preclinical study. Therefore, it requires a perturbation of physiological signals, such as blood flow and oxygenation. In that sense, a few groups reported that monitoring a relative hemodynamic change during a breast tissue compression or a breath-hold to a patient can provide good contrast between tumor and nontumor.

However, no longitudinal study reports the utilization of a breath-hold to predict tumor response during chemotherapy. A continuous wave near-infrared spectroscopy was employed to monitor hemodynamics in rat breast tumor during a hyperoxic to normoxic inhalational gas intervention to mimic a breath-hold during tumor growth and chemotherapy.

The reduced oxyhemoglobin concentration during inhalational gas intervention correlated well with tumor growth, and it responded one day earlier than the change of tumor volume after chemotherapy. In conclusion, monitoring tumor hemodynamics during a breath-hold may serve as a biomarker to predict chemotherapeutic efficacy of tumor. Left ventricle changes early after breath-holding in deep water in elite apnea divers. To study by ultrasounds cardiac morphology and function early after breath-hold diving in deep water in elite athletes.

Each subject performed a series of three consecutive breath-hold dives and 40 m depth. End-diastolic left ventricular LV diameter EDD and end-diastolic LV volume EDV increased significantly p breath-hold diving due to favorable changes in loading conditions relative to pre-diving, namely the recruitment of left ventricular preload reserve and the reduction in afterload.

Dark chocolate reduces endothelial dysfunction after successive breath-hold dives in cool water. The aim of this study is to observe the effects of dark chocolate on endothelial function after a series of successive apnea dives in non-thermoneutral water. Twenty breath-hold divers were divided into two groups: a control group 8 males and 2 females and a chocolate group 9 males and 1 female. The chocolate group performed the dives 1 h after ingestion of 30 g of dark chocolate.

A significant decrease in FMD was observed in the control group after the dives No differences in digital photoplethysmography and peroxynitrites were observed between before and after the dives.

Antioxidants contained in dark chocolate scavenge free radicals produced during breath-hold diving. Ingestion of 30 g of dark chocolate 1 h before the dive can thus prevent endothelial dysfunction which can be observed after a series of breath-hold dives.

Validation of high temporal resolution spiral phase velocity mapping of temporal patterns of left and right coronary artery blood flow against Doppler guidewire. Temporal patterns of coronary blood flow velocity can provide important information on disease state and are currently assessed invasively using a Doppler guidewire. A non-invasive alternative would be beneficial as it would allow study of a wider patient population and serial scanning. A retrospectively-gated breath-hold spiral phase velocity mapping sequence TR 19 ms was developed at 3 Tesla.

Velocity maps were acquired in 8 proximal right and 15 proximal left coronary arteries of 18 subjects who had previously had a Doppler guidewire study at the time of coronary angiography. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance CMR velocity -time curves were processed semi-automatically and compared with corresponding invasive Doppler data.

High temporal resolution breath-hold spiral phase velocity mapping underestimates absolute values of coronary flow velocity but allows accurate assessment of the temporal patterns of blood flow. The order Magnaporthales was intro- Clade 10 represents the monotypic genus Pseudostan- duced by Thongkantha et al.

Magnaporthaceae based on morphological characters of aquitropica as the type species and it was collected from both asexual and sexual morphs together with phylogenetic freshwater habitats.

We introduce the second species, P. There lignicola sp. Mag- Clade 11 represents the family Papulosaceae established naporthaceae, Ophioceraceae, Pseudohalonectriaceae, by Winka and Eriksson Papulosaceae is typified by Pyriculariaceae.

We introduce the new family Cer- the monotypic marine genus Papulosa Winka and Eriks- atosphaeriaceae to accommodate Ceratosphaeria species. Clade 21 represents the family Pseudohalonectriaceae Clade 12 represents the species Sporidesmium tropicale established by Hongsanan et al. The strain Pseudohalonectria. Five strains collected from freshwater MFLUCC 16— was obtained from the specimen col- habitats are included in our phylogentic tree.

Clade 22 represents the family Magnaporthaceae intro- Clade 13 represents the typical freshwater genus Bul- duced by Cannon We introduce a new monotypic limyces introduced by Ferrer et al. Clade 14 represents the family Barbatosphaeriaceae Clade 23 represents the family Tirisporellaceae with a which was introduced by Zhang et al.

Clade 15 represents the new order Distoseptisporales Clade 24 represents the family Jobellisiaceae with a introduced herein. We introduce 11 nulus. Zhang et al. Chaetosphaeria aquatica, Woswasiaceae to accommodate Woswasia, Xylochrysis C.

In our phylogenetic analysis, lignicola, D. We intro- five strains. Phyllachoraceae sp. WF33A was collected duce two new species herein, Cordana aquatica and C. We also Clade 28 represents the single isolate of Clohiesia.

Chaetomiaceae, Sordariaceae and Clade 32 represents the family Sporocadaceae and we Lasiosphaeriaceae sensu lato. Six freshwater species are introduce a new species, Seiridium aquaticum. We introduce a new species, lished by Hyde et al. A new species, Arthrinium Lepteutypa aquatica. The genus Peroneutypa has been accomodated in paceae, although this relationship is not supported. Diatrypaceae Shang et al.

In our multi-gene phy- Clade 36 represents the species Sporidesmium gyri- logenetic analysis, the new species forms a distinct nomorphum MFLUCC 16— introduced by Yang et al. In this Hypoxylon strains. We introduce a new species Hypoxylon study, we introduce a new Ascosacculus species, A. Wendt formis, based on morphology and phylogeny. Lombard et al. We family based on molecular sequence data. We introduce a introduced a new species herein, Cylindrotrichum sub- new species Cosmospora aquatica, based on morphology mersum sp.

DNA sequence data for Aquanectria Hyde et al. We introduce a new species, Clade 39 represents the family Stachybotriaceae estab- Phaeoisaria filiformis. We introduce a new genus Dema- Stachybotrys. In this study, morphological characterization tiosporium in this family. Clade 45 represents the order Conioscyphales estab- chlorohalonata are provided. We introduce two new species, Co- Taxonomy nioscypha aquatica and C.

Clade 46 represents the monotypic order Fuscosporel- Based on the outline and multigene phylogeny of fresh- lales established by Yang et al. Most of the species in this order are Sordariomycetes are scattered in six sub-classes, viz. Dia- reported from freshwater habitats. The to accommodate two ascomycete species, A. Descriptions, illustrations and sequence data for wood in Australia. There are 19 epithets of Annulatascus the fungi collected from freshwater habitats in China and listed in Index Fungorum December, , however Thailand from to are also provided.

Hyde et al. Subsequently, Campbell and follows: Shearer established a new genus Annulusmagnus for Diaporthomycetidae Senan. Luo et al. Pseudoannulatascus biatriisporus. Hyde, Aust. Sexual morph Updated nulatascus biatriisporus under Torrentispora biatriispora, generic description and illustrations see based on phylogenetic analysis. Currently, 16 species are Maharachchikumbura et al. Hyde, from freshwater habitats in tropical areas Barbosa et al.

Annulatascus apiculatus F. Annulatascus lacteus Tsui et al. Sequence data is not available. Erythrophleum teysmannii Boonyuen et al. Asexual morph: Undetermined Annulatascus liputii L. Liput River Cai et al. Annulatascus fusiformis K.

Sequence data is not wood Vijaykrishna and Hyde ; China, Yunnan available. Sequence data is not Asexual morph: Undetermined available. LSU available. Annulatascus palmietensis Goh et al. Annulatascus joannae Tsui et al. Durban, Palmiet River, on submerged wood Hyde et al. Asexual morph: Undetermined b. Campbell and Shearer Hyde sequence data are available.

Annulatascus velatisporus K. Hyde Type species: Aqualignicola hyalina Ranghoo et al. Natigbasan Creek, on submerged wood Wong et al. Mai Province, on submerged wood Hu et al. Aqualignicola vaginata Hu et al.

Annulusmagnus J. Asexual morph Undetermined. Sexual morph Description Asexual morph: Undetermined and illustrations see Campbell and Shearer Sequence data is not Type species: Annulusmagnus triseptatus Wong et al. Aqualignicola vaginata was introduced by Hu J.

Annulusmagnus triseptatus was first collected from submerged wood in Brunei Wong et al. Sexual morph Description a and subsequently reported from Australia, Canada and illustrations see Campbell and Shearer Annulusmagnus triseptatus Wong et al.

Ascitendus was proposed for Ascolacicola austriaca a. Sequence data is not species of Ascitendus are accepted and both were collected available. River, on decaying wood submerged in a River Hyde et al. Type species: Cataractispora aquatica Hyde et al.

Ho et al. LSU sequence data is Louise, on submerged wood Hyde et al. Hyde, Cryptog. Sexual morph Description Cataractispora aquatica Hyde et al.

Distribution: Australia, north Queensland, Cow Bay, a. Ayria with A. Sequence data is not and sea water, in Brunei. Raja et al. Cataractispora bipolaris K.

Hyde Hyde et al. Hyde : Annulatascus bipolaris K. The type specimen was on submerged decaying wood Raja et al.

Sequence data is not description, illustration and information for specimens. Cataractispora receptaculorum Ho et al. Type species: Submersisphaeria aquatica K. Presently, five species were accepted in this genus Park, Black River Hyde et al. Sequence data is not described from Queensland, Australia Hyde , and available.

Campbell et al. Fournier et al. Asexual morph Taeniolella-like. Sexual morph Descrip- Submersisphaeria aquatica K. Hyde tion and illustrations see Zelski et al. There is only one submerged wood Campbell et al. Asexual morph: Taeniolella-like, see Zelski et al.

Sequence data is not Asexual morph Undetermined. Sexual morph Description available. Longicollum Zelski et al. Sexual morph: Descrip- Mycologia 92 5 : tion and illustrations see Zelski et al. Notes: The genus Vertexicola is characterized by asci Type species: Longicollum biappendiculatum Zelski with a refractive apical ring and a tail-like pedicel and et al. Barbosa Longicollum biappendiculatum Zelski et al. Sequence data is not debris; Peru, Camanti, stream at Quincemil Trail 1, on available.

Reservoir, submerged wood Ranghoo et al. Submersisphaeria K. Hyde, Nova Hedwigia 62 1—2 : Atractosporales Zhang et al. Notes: Holotype PRM Luo, K. Su, sp. RPB2 sequence data are available. Atractospora ellipsoidea Ho et al. Fryar et al. Sexual morph Shearer Ascomata — lm high, — lm diam.

LSU globose to subglobose, unilocular. Ostiole periphysate. Atractospora thailandensis Dong et al. Fourn 18—, holotype. Sexual morph Description and smaller ascospores 15—19 vs. Atractospora aquatica also resembles A. However, Atractospora abscondita, collected from freshwater in France. This is a aquatica differs from A. Yverneaux, on submerged twigs of Abies alba in a peat bog Sequence data is unavailable.

Diaporthales Nannf. Asexual morph: Undetermined Diaporthaceae Hohn. Barr, Mycotaxon 60 globose. Conidiophores cylindrical, sometimes filiform, Asexual morph Undetermined.

Sexual morph Ascomata aseptate or septate, cylindrical, sometimes branched. Coni- subglobose to obpyriform to lageniform, brown or exter- dia dimorphic, hyaline, smooth, with usually fusiform and nally with yellowish pigments, glabrous or slightly rugose, biguttulate alpha conidia and usually filiform, hamate, non- with short to long papilla or with long upright neck.

Sexual morph Ascomata globose to Peridium comprising two or three layers. Paraphyses subglobose, coriaceous, immersed to semi-immersed, sin- numerous, septate, hyaline. Asci 8-spored, unitunicate, gle to clustered, brown to black.

Neck cylindrical, black. Paraphyses cylindrical, longer than asci, septate. Asci remnants attached to the ascogenous hyphae after dehis- 8-spored, unitunicate, thin-walled, apedicellate, broad cence. Ascospores ellipsoidal to reniform to navicular, cylindrical to obclavate, with a minute apical ring.

As- aseptate or transversely 1-septate with one or two polar cospores overlapping biseriate, ellipsoidal to fusiform, germ pores, brown. Type species: Diaporthe eres Nitschke, Pyrenomyc. Barr, Mycotaxon 61 Germ. Three species have been names in the genus Diaporthe, but this was reduced to found in freshwater habitats. Hu et al. Cai duced a new Diaporthe species D. Diaporthe aquatica Hu et al. Gnomoniaceae G.

LSU sequence data is Asexual morph Undetermined. Sexual morph Descrip- available. Jobellisia luteola was originally collected from tions and illustrations refer to Senanayake et al. Sogonov et al. Hyde rum. Monod in host associations. Distribution: Malaysia, on submerged wood Ho et al.

Ambarignomonia petiolorum Schwein. Sogonov Asexual morph: Undetermined Ges. Leipzig 1: Gnomoniella : Gnomonia petiolorum Schwein. Cooke, Gre- microspora was originally collected from terrestrial habi- villea 7: 54 tats Monod Same as Gno- specimens collected from freshwater habitats: ILLS , moniella microspora, the original collection of G. However, we sequence data are available. Fallah and Shearer consider this species as freshwater fungus as Ho et al.

Colonies on PDA effuse, Ambarignomonia petiolorum. Conidio- Gnomonia Ces. Asexual morph see Sivanesan and Shaw Sexual Conidiogenous cells monophialidic, determinate, with morph Description see Maharachchikumbura et al.

Conidia straight or curved, oblong, hya- Type species: Gnomonia vulgaris Ces. Sexual morph Ascomata immersed, subglo- Comm. Peridium composed of 2 layers, with and De Notaris and typified by Gnomonia gnomon. Paraphyses hyaline, broad, septate. Asci unituni- Shaw ; Fallah and Shearer ; Senanayake et al. J-, subapical ring. Ascospores cylindrical, straight or Gnomonia papuana Sivan. Shaw curved, versicolorous, transseptate, brown with hyaline or Distribution: Papua New Guinea, on submerged leaves pale brown end cells.

Sivanesan and Shaw Sequence data is not Phruensis with a single species P. No more species reported for Gnomoniella Sacc. Sexual morph Ascomata Phruensis brunneispora Pinruan globose to subglobose, immersed. Asci cylindrical, subsessiles. Ascospores fusiform, horn peat swamp forest, on submerged palm in freshwater ellipse, hyaline, septate.

Type species: Gnomoniella tubaeformis Tode Sacc. Abellini 1: b Notes: Kirk et al. SSU genus Gnomoniella. Two species have been found in sequence data is available. Culture on PDA from above i and reverse j. Culture on PDA from surface l and reverse m. Culture on PDA from above n and reverse o. Culture on MEA from above l and reverse m.

Scale bars: c—k 30 lm Distoseptisporales Z. Luo, H. Hyde, ord. Conidio- Notes: Distoseptisporaceae was established by Su et al. Conidiogenous phology and phylogeny. Culture on PDA from above o and reverse p. Scale Distoseptisporales. Phylogenetic results show that Asexual morph Description and illustration see Su et al. Distoseptispora appendiculata is distinct from other spe- and Yang et al. Sexual morph cies of Distoseptispora Fig. Distoseptispora aquatica Luo et al. Type species: Distoseptispora aquatica Luo et al.

Notes: Su et al. Currently, there are 13 species in Dis- Distoseptispora cangshanensis Luo et al. Mountain, on submerged wood Luo et al. Sexual morph: Undetermined Distoseptispora appendiculata D. Bao, Z. Asexual morph Colonies effuse, olivaceous or Distoseptispora guttulata J. Hyde mid-brown, hairy, velvety. Mycelium mostly immersed, Facesoffungi number: FoF , Fig. Conidiophores 62—86 lm long, 4. Mycelium partly superficial, partly matous, solitary, erect, straight or flexuous, olivaceous or immersed, consisting of branched, septate, smooth, sub- brown, 5—6-septate, smooth.

Conidiogenous cells hyaline to pale brown hyphae. Conidiophores 28—84 lm monoblastic, holoblastic, terminal, dark brown. Conidiogenous below, hyaline towards apex, truncate at base, slender and cells monoblastic, integrated, terminal, determinate, mid to rounded at apex, smooth, with a conspicuous, gelatinous, dark brown, cylindrical, sometimes proliferating percur- hyaline sheath around tip.

Sexual morph Undetermined. Conidia 70— — lm long, 8. Notes: Distoseptispora appendiculata resembles D. However, Distoseptispora appendicu- lata is easily distinguished from D. The best scoring RAxML tree with a final likelihood value of – RAxML bootstrap support values equal to or greater 5—9-euseptate conidia, while D. Bayesian euseptate conidia. Phylogenetically, Distoseptispora gut- posterior probability equal to or higher than 0. Ex-type or ex-epitype strains are in species Fig.

Hyde Facesoffungi number: FoF , Fig. Asexual morph Colonies effuse, dark olive- et al. Conidiophores 29—47 lm long, 4—6 lm Distoseptispora guttulata was introduced by matous, solitary, brown, 2—3-septate, straight or slightly Yang et al. Morphologically, our iso- apex, olive-green to dark brown. Conidiogenous cells late fits well with the characters of D. Phylogenetic analysis also shows that our isolate determinate, cylindrical.

Conidia — lm long, 12— clusters with ex-type of D. Conidial seces- K. Hyde, sp. Asexual morph Colonies effuse, scattered, hairy, Hua Hin, on submerged wood in a stream Hyde et al. Mycelium mostly immersed, com- b. Distoseptispora multiseptata was introduced by uous, 6—septate, unbranched, cylindrical, brown, Yang et al. Conidiogenous cells monoblastic, integrated, ter- freshwater stream in Thailand. Morphologically, our iso- minal, determinate, brown, cylindrical.

Conidia 60— late fits well with the characters of D. Phylogenetic analysis also shows that our acrogenous, solitary or catenate, obclavate, truncate at isolate clusters with ex-type of D. Asexual morph Colonies effuse, dark olivaceous, cylindrical, septate conidiophores, solitary or in groups on hairy.

Scale bars: b, c lm, Notes: Distoseptispora obclavata resembles D. However, Distoseptispora brown hyphae. Conidiophores 93— lm long, 5. Phylogenetic results show that Distosep- flexuous, tapering distally, truncate at the apex. Conidio- tispora appendiculata is distinct from other species of genous cells monoblastic, integrated, terminal, brown, Distoseptispora Fig.

Conidia — lm long, 13—15 lm wide Distoseptispora obpyriformis Z. Notes: Distoseptispora neorostrata shares similar mor- Sexual morph: Undetermined phological characters with D.

However, the multi-gene phylogenetic analyses Distoseptispora rostrata Luo et al. Su, on submerged wood Luo et al. Asexual morph Colonies effuse, olivaceous or on submerged wood Luo et al. Conidiophores Conidiogenous cells River Yang et al.

Sexual Distoseptisporales genera incertae sedis morph Undetermined. Aquapteridospora Yang et al. Yang, K. Both of these species also Notes: Yang et al. Aquapteridospora with single asexual species, A lignicola, However, A. In this study, we introduce the second species without a sheath, while the conidia of A. Aquapteridospora was placed as guttules in the middle cells and a conspicuous sheath.

Diaporthomycetidae genera incertae sedis by Yang et al. Phylogenetic analysis also shows that A. In our phylogenetic analysis, Aquapteridospora lignicola are distinct from other species, but they cluster species form a distinct clade within Distoseptisporales and together with strong support Fig. To further basal to Distoseptisporaceae, and we therefore treat this support A.

Aquapteridospora lignicola Yang et al. Sexual morph: Undetermined Magnaporthales Thongk et al. LSU sequence data is Ceratosphaeriaceae Z. Hyde, available.

Aquapteridospora fusiformis Z. Luo, D. Bao, H. Phialides or short number: FoF , Fig. Conidiogenous cells fungus. Conidia cylindrical, hyaline, aseptate, Saprobic on decaying wood submerged in freshwater. Sexual morph Stromata absent. Ascomata globose Asexual morph Colonies on the natural substrate effuse, to pyriform, deeply immersed to almost superficial, dark hairy, pale brown to brown. Mycelium superficial or partly brown to black, carbonaceous, with a long cylindrical, immersed, composed of branched, septate, pale brown to black or yellow crystals neck.

Periphyses well-developed. Asci 8-spored, unitunicate, cylindrical, fairly tate, smooth, thick-walled, brown at the base, paler towards thin-walled, the apex truncate, with a conspicuous J-apical apex. Conidiogenous cells polyblastic, terminal, later ring. Ascospores arranged biseriately, narrowly cylindric- becoming intercalary, pale brown, integrated, with several fusiform, or filiform, the ends acute, thin-walled, hyaline, sympodial proliferations, bearing tiny, protuberant, circular septate, guttulate, smooth-walled.

Conidia 14—18 lm long, 5—7 lm wide Type genus: Ceratosphaeria Niessl, Verh. Phylogeneti- Undetermined. Morphologically, Pseudohalonectriaceae is 18—, holotype , ex-type living culture MFLUCC characterized by erumpent to immersed ascomata with a 18— Scale b Appearance of neck on substrate.

Culture on PDA from surface k and reverse l. Scale bars: b lm, c 50 lm, d— Holotype: MFLU 18— f 30 lm, g—j 20 lm Saprobic on decaying wood submerged in freshwater habitats. Sexual morph Ascomata — lm high, — lm diam. Ceratosphaeriaceae is distinct solitary. Neck long, surface smooth, at times with yellow from Pseudohalonectriaceae in having narrowly cylindric- crystals. Peridium 29—43 lm thick, composed of an inner fusiform to filiform, longer ascospores.

We therefore layer of flattened hyaline cells, a middle layer of small, introduce a new family Ceratosphaeriaceae to accommo- polygonal to irregular, pale brown cells, an outer layer of date Ceratosphaeria. Pa- Ceratosphaeria Niessl, Verh.

Ascospores 89—95 9 4— slimy, inconspicuous, and transparent. Conidia cylin- Material examined: CHINA, Yunnan Province, saprobic drical with curvature, hyaline, narrowly rounded at both on decaying wood submerged in a freshwater river, April ends, aseptate, smooth. However, Cer- detached, scattered to densely aggregated. Peridium com- atosphaeria aquatica differs from C. Interascal tissue of tulate, septate, larger ascospores 89—95 9 4—7 vs. Ceratosphaeria aquatica also periphyses well-developed.

Asci 8-spored, unitunicate, shares similar morphological characters with C. However, conspicuous, J-, apical ring. Ascospores arranged biseri- Ceratosphaeria aquatica differs from C. Type species: Ceratosphaeria lampadophora Berk. Notes: The genus Ceratosphaeria was introduced by nat. In this study, we introduce two new species 67 7 : in Ceratosphaeria. Asexual morph: Harpophora-like. Ceratosphaeria aquatica Z.

The best scoring RAxML tree with a final likelihood 94— vs. RAxML bootstrap support fusiform, 5—7-septate ascospores. Bayesian posterior probability equal to or higher than 0. Cannon than 0.

Newly generated sequences are in red. Ex-type or ex- Aquafiliformis Z. Su, gen. Sexual morph Ascomata immersed with neck swamps Shearer and Crane Peridium composed of an inner Notes: Sequence data is not available.

Asci 8-spored, unitunicate, cylindrical number: FoF , Fig. Ascospores filiform, aseptate, guttulate, Etymology: Referring to this fungus dwelling on wood. Su freshwater.



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However, Neospadicoides yunnanensis or in groups, erect, unbranched, septate, straight or flexu- differs from Spadicoides hodgkissa in having pale brown ous, cylindrical, brown conidiophores paler towards the conidia with dark band at basal euseptum while Spadi- apex, integrated, terminal conidiogenous cells and obovoid, coides hodgkissa has versicolored conidia comprising a septate, guttulate conidia this study. Figure 21 shows the efficiency along with the input power. During pursuit of targets that moved horizontally at different vertical eccentricities or vertically at different horizontal eccentricities, eye angular velocity has been shown to include a torsional component the amplitude of which is proportional to half the gaze angle “half-angle rule” of Listing’s law. Sexual morph Description and illus- Asexual morph Undetermined. The soft-start routine pace of are serviced outside of the interrupt vector to give increment is limited by how fast this routine can precedence to the modulation routines. Heilong stream, 15 March , Z. The voltage and frequency can be adjusted with the inverter board. For lesion detection and characterization, there were no significant differences between breathhold and non- breathhold DWI.

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