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The #COVID19 Government Measures Dataset puts together all the measures implemented by governments worldwide in response to the Coronavirus pandemic. Data. Grouping of cases was observed for the following pharmaceutical Italy; 9University of Copenhagen, n/a, Copenhagen, Denmark; 10n/a, n/a, n/a, Netherlands. Additional language packs are available for download on the Microsoft Store, pursuant to manufacturer and carrier support.) List of languages. Afrikaans.❿

Windows 10 1703 download iso italy covid cases – windows 10 1703 download iso italy covid cases


The proposed methods are applied to the images and the test results are demonstrated with the 10 CT scan images that are randomly selected which are obtained from different countries of the world. Table 3 gives a brief overview of the test images and the test images along with their histograms are given in Fig. The experiments are performed in the MatLab Ra on a computer that is equipped with an Intel i3 processor and 4 GB main memory.

The proposed method is compared with some metaheuristic optimization-based image segmentation approaches like modified genetic algorithm [67] , modified PSO [68] , improved bat algorithm [69] and modified cuckoo search method [70] in both qualitative and quantitative manner. The visual comparison is presented in Fig. The acceptable values are highlighted in boldface. The comparisons and evaluations are performed for different numbers of clusters.

A comparative study of different approaches using T e s t 01 for different number of clusters. Performance evaluation of different approaches using Davies—Bouldin index The highlighted values indicates acceptable values.

Performance evaluation of different approaches using Xie—Beni index The highlighted values indicates acceptable values.

Performance evaluation of different approaches using Dunn index The highlighted values indicates acceptable values. From the qualitative and quantitative results, it can be observed that the proposed SUFACSO approach outperforms some state-of-the-art works and can produce realistic outputs that are certainly helpful for the interpretation of the real-life CT scan images and therefore, this approach can be helpful for the early screening purposes.

At the end of each table, the average performance of the five approaches is reported which is beneficial to understand the overall performance of these methods for the different number of clusters and different cluster validity indices.

In the case of average, the column-wise optimal values are highlighted instead of highlighting the row-wise optimal values. The row-wise highlighted values talk about the performance of the individual algorithm for the different number of clusters whereas the column-wise highlighted values help to understand the performance of the individual algorithms.

It can be observed that the proposed approach outperforms other approaches for most of the number of clusters as well as for most of the validity indices. For example, on a total of 16 occasions i. These comparative results are graphically presented in Fig.

In X -axis the number of clusters and in the Y -axis, the values of the corresponding validity index are plotted. The experiments are carried out for the different numbers of clusters. A particular approach may perform well for a particular cluster count. That is why the average values of all experiments are reported at the end of each table for better interpretation. It can be observed that the proposed approach can optimize different objective functions effectively.

Actually, the experiments are carried out on CT images in the first phase and CT images in the second phase. It is already mentioned in Section 5. Results that are obtained from all images are not possible to report in this stipulated amount of space. Therefore, only some results that are obtained from some selected images are reported. Apart from these tests, the proposed approach is also compared with some of the active contour models based on some standard parameters like accuracy, precision, and recall.

This comparison is performed by using the database that is available at [71]. This dataset is created by collecting sample images from 49 patients with age range 32—86 years. The obtained average results are reported in Table 8.

The rate of convergence is an important parameter to be studied. The performance evaluation remains incomplete without studying and comparing the convergence of different algorithms. The convergence analysis gives a clear view of the comparative performance of different algorithms for the different numbers of clusters. The graphical analysis of the convergence is presented in this subsection using the image T e s t 01 for the Dunn index.

In Fig. In a single plot, four separate curves are indicating four different clusters. These curves show that the proposed approach can efficiently segment the images for a higher number of clusters. Moreover, the proposed approach also outperforms some other methods in terms of convergence besides quantitative and qualitative performance.

The time complexity is an important aspect that is to be analyzed. From the detailed discussion of the proposed approach, it can be noticed that the proposed approach can be viewed as a two-phase procedure where the watershed-based computation approach is used to determine the superpixel image from the underlying image in the first phase and the optimal segmented outcome is computed in the second phase. The task of optimization is performed using the proposed fuzzy ACSO approach.

The gradient information of an image is used to avoid the noise sensitivity of the water-shed based superpixel computation process. The watershed-based technique is a simple method to compute the superpixel and the implementation follows linear complexity [56]. It is quite inspiring and lucrative to adopt this approach on different occasions. In the optimization part, the fuzzy objective function is optimized by using the proposed fuzzy ACSO method.

The ACSO approach is an effective and efficient approach that can be executed in linear time [47]. So, the proposed approach is efficient enough and can be effectively used in various real-life problem-solving scenarios. This approach can effectively process high-quality images with the help of the proposed superpixel-based approach that is an essential quality for the real-life application of an image segmentation approach. This approach removes the dependency of choice of the initial cluster centers as well as the ACSO approach determines the optimal cluster centers by optimizing some validity indices.

These advantages motivate us to apply the proposed approach to automatically segment the radiological images that will be certainly helpful in diagnosing some symptoms of COVID The experimental outcomes show the efficiency of the proposed approach.

Under this pandemic environment, this work is designed hoping that it can help physicians and other domain experts to some extent in the early diagnosis of the disease. Early diagnosis can prevent the drastic spread of this highly infectious virus. Quantitative results do not have any direct implications in real-life diagnosis. The segmented outcomes are useful in the diagnosis process. Physicians can investigate the segmented outcomes to find some prominent and common features as mentioned in Table 2.

The segmented images will be helpful in the easy interpretation of the radiological images. The proposed SUFACSO approach is an efficient image segmentation approach that can effectively segment the radiological images that highly useful in the easy interpretation of these images. There is a high possibility that a suspected patient can spread the disease in the community completely unwillingly.

The proposed approach can reduce this chance because an initial screening can be performed by the physicians comfortable with the help of the proposed SUFACSO approach.

It is worth mentioning here that the proposed approach is neither a replacement of the RT-PCR test nor it can confirm the presence of the virus accurately. However, this approach can be helpful in an initial screening at an early stage that will restrict the spread of this highly infectious virus by separating suspected patients from the rest of the community.

The obtained results indicate that the proposed approach is suitable for real-life scenarios and also performs efficiently. This approach can be easily adapted for the automated screening purposes of the COVID infected patients. It is assumed the quality of the CT scan images is considerably high and the performance of the proposed approach is not verified against the presence of noise. It will be interesting to study the proposed approach in the presence of noise.

The scalability of the proposed approach to different types of biomedical images can be explored in future studies. Missing manual annotations can jeopardize the generalizability of the proposed work.

On the other hand, the obtained results are quite promising and encouraging. From the best of the knowledge of the authors, there is no publicly available manually annotated dataset for the chest CT scan images of the COVID positive cases. Although the proposed approach is efficient enough to segment the CT scan images automatically and produces realistic segmented outcomes still, some important drawbacks can be observed in this proposed approach that can be addressed in the subsequent works.

One important drawback of the proposed approach is that it cannot automatically determine the number of clusters and it can be overcome in future works. Automated estimation of the clusters can make this approach more realistic, robust, and application friendly. The proposed method can handle only a single objective at a time.

Therefore, the proposed approach is not suitable for multi-objective optimization issues unless enhanced further. The number of images in the dataset is not very large. So, the proposed approach can also be tested on some additional CT images of COVID infection as well as on some standard dataset of the biomedical images.

It neither use any training dataset nor uses any pre-trained model. The proposed approach can effectively segment the radiological images that are collected from different patients i. It is to be clarified that this approach cannot take any decision about the type of disease automatically. For example, the proposed approach cannot automatically differentiate between COVID related lung images and other lung diseases. This approach aims to help physicians in early and quick interpretation of the radiological images and diagnosis of the diseases without any manual delineations.

This article proposes a novel, simple and elegant solution that uses some of the important features of the chest CT scan images to screen the COVID suspected patients easily and at an early phase which can be considered as an effective tool to reduce the drastic spread of this virus.

From Fig. Both qualitative and quantitative study produces some satisfactory results which help to make the proposed approach trustworthy so that it can be reliably adapted in the real-world scenarios. The proposed approach initially performs a superpixel-based clustering using the proposed superpixel computation method which significantly reduces the computational overhead for the further clustering process by reducing a large amount of spatial information.

Therefore, radiological images can be conveniently explicated with the application of the proposed method and the proposed approach is also helpful in the easy interpretation of the radiological images.

The proposed work neither claims that the suggested approach is cent percent accurate in determining the COVID infection nor claims that it can be a replacement of the RT-PCR test but, the proposed method can help detect some common characteristics from the CT scan images, that can help to isolate some suspected patients from the rest of the community. The proposed approach is helpful for the early screening of the COVID besides being a significant contribution to the image segmentation literature.

The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper. The authors would like to express their gratitude and thank the editors, anonymous reviewers, and referees for their valuable comments and suggestions which are helpful in further improvement of this research work. The dedicated graphics memory is not utilized for any kind of processing purposes.

The system in which the experiments are carried out is equipped with the Microsoft Windows 7 64 bit operating system. It is not at all essential to use the Matlab environment to implement the proposed approach. We have chosen Matlab due to the availability of some inbuilt functions which are helpful to reduce the coding complexity. Still, any other languages or platforms can be used to implement the same. It is assumed that there are no manual annotations available and the proposed approach is capable to process the images without having any prior knowledge.

The final segmented images are constructed by assigning the superpixel to their corresponding cluster centers. These segmented images are helpful to interpret different features from these radiological images.

Appl Soft Comput. Published online Feb 3. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. All rights reserved. Elsevier hereby grants permission to make all its COVIDrelated research that is available on the COVID resource centre – including this research content – immediately available in PubMed Central and other publicly funded repositories, such as the WHO COVID database with rights for unrestricted research re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source.

Abstract Due to the absence of any specialized drugs, the novel coronavirus disease or COVID is one of the biggest threats to mankind Although the RT-PCR test is the gold standard to confirm the presence of this virus, some radiological investigations find some important features from the CT scans of the chest region, which are helpful to identify the suspected COVID patients.

Introduction Automated computer-aided systems prove their effectiveness and real-life applicability in various scenarios. Table 1 Some of the related literatures and their brief overview. The calibrated source-to-background curves are used to determine the volume using the iterative thresholding procedure. One major drawback of the system is that it cannot effectively measure small volumes. Wiemker et. This work proposes a divergence theorem and histogram-based Ct image segmentation approach.

This approach is can effectively and optimally isolate the lung nodules from the CT scan images. In this context, the optimality is defined in terms of the mean gradient of the iso-surface and the sphericity. Asari et. This algorithm is consisting of two stages where the first stage employs a global thresholding approach and in the second phase, the differential region growing is used to extract the gastrointestinal lumen from the endoscopic images. The dynamic hill-clustering approach is used to ascertain the effectiveness of the termination criteria and to look after the growth process.

Yu-qian et. Traditional gradient-based edge detection approaches are susceptible to noise and therefore, this approach proposes a novel approach to detect edges of the lung CT scan images using mathematical morphology. This approach is tested on the CT images which are corrupted with the salt-and-pepper noise and its efficiency is proved by comparing this approach with some of the other standard approaches. It is observed that this approach can efficiently reduce the effect of noise and also can generate precise edges.

Falcao et. This approach is highly dependent on the user intervention to efficiently determine the segmented regions and to define the objects. This approach is found to be 3 to 15 times faster compared to manual tracing. This approach can be applied almost independently to the applications. One main problem associated with this method is the difficulties associated with the choice of slabs and orthogonal slices which has a serious impact on the efficiency of this approach.

Pan et. The proposed approach addresses the problem of discontinuous edges and dependency on the initialization which are associated with the traditional edge detection approaches. In this work, the intensity of the gradient images is modeled as the concentration of the nutrients and the property of the bacteria Escherichia coli. The edges are highlighted as the paths of the bacteria. Although this approach performs well and comparative study shows the effectiveness of the proposed approach still, one problem of this approach is not very robust to noise.

Noise can lead to crumpled edges. This approach is not also suitable to handle overlapped cells. Ji et. Traditional fuzzy C-means clustering approach does not consider the spatial information and less robust to noise. This work proposes a modification which is known as the weighted image patch-based FCM.

In this work, pixels are replaced with the weighted patches which is helpful to incorporate spatial information in the segmentation process. It is helpful to increase the reliability of the overall segmentation process but it also increases the computational overhead drastically. Agrawal et. This work proposes a novel hybrid approach which is based on the genetic algorithm and the bacterial foraging algorithm.

The combination of these two approaches is used to optimize the objective function of the fuzzy c-means clustering. The final cluster centers are obtained using a method called optimum boundary point detection. This approach cannot determine the optimal number of clusters automatically and produces inaccurate results if the predefined clusters and the actual number of clusters differ. This approach is based on intuitionistic fuzzy set theory and it is known as the intuitionistic fuzzy C means clustering.

In this work, a novel objective function which is known as intuitionistic fuzzy entropy is incorporated with the traditional fuzzy C-means clustering. This approach is applied to different CT scan images to prove its efficiency. Miao et. This approach can be divided into two phases where the first phase incorporates a dictionary learning method to handle the noise.

In the second phase, this dictionary learning approach is hybridized with the Improved fuzzy c-means clustering approach. The proposed approach is not efficient for medical images with inhomogeneous intensity distribution. Open in a separate window. A brief overview of the artificial cell swarm optimization procedure This is a recently developed metaheuristic procedure that is inspired by the artificial cell division procedure.

The incorporated modifications are listed below [47] : i. The artificial cells are not depending on the current state to participate in the cell division process.

Fuzzy C-means clustering based on type 2 fuzzy system The proposed approach adopts the type 2 fuzzy logic-based clustering approach to effectively model and handle the random uncertainties.

A point with higher uncertainty has a lesser impact on the overall clustering process and vice-versa. Windows 10 receives new builds on an ongoing basis, which are available at no additional cost to users, in addition to additional test builds of Windows 10, which are available to Windows Insiders. Devices in enterprise environments can receive these updates at a slower pace, or use long-term support milestones that only receive critical updates, such as security patches , over their ten-year lifespan of extended support.

Windows 10 received generally positive reviews upon its original release. Critics praised Microsoft’s decision to provide the desktop-oriented interface in line with previous versions of Windows, contrasting the tablet-oriented approach of Windows 8, although Windows 10’s touch-oriented user interface mode was criticized for containing regressions upon the touch-oriented interface of its predecessor.

Critics also praised the improvements to Windows 10’s bundled software over Windows 8. However, media outlets have been critical of the changes to operating system behaviors, including mandatory update installation, privacy concerns over data collection performed by the OS for Microsoft and its partners, and adware -like tactics used to promote the operating system on its release. Microsoft initially aimed to have Windows 10 installed on over one billion devices within three years of its release; [19] that goal was ultimately reached almost five years after release on March 16, , [22] and is by now most used version in virtually all countries.

By January , Windows 10 surpassed Windows 7 as the most popular version of Windows worldwide. On June 24, , Microsoft announced Windows 10’s successor, Windows 11 , which was released on October 5, In December , technology writer Mary Jo Foley reported that Microsoft was working on an update to Windows 8 codenamed “Threshold”, after a planet in its Halo franchise.

She also stated that one of the goals for Threshold was to create a unified application platform and development toolkit for Windows, Windows Phone and Xbox One which all use a similar kernel based on Windows NT. The new Start menu takes after Windows 7 ‘s design by using only a portion of the screen and including a Windows 7-style application listing in the first column.

The second column displays Windows 8-style app tiles. Myerson said that these changes would occur in a future update, but did not elaborate. Windows Phone 8. Screenshots of a Windows build purported to be Threshold were leaked in July , showing the previously presented Start menu and windowed Windows Store apps, [32] followed by a further screenshot of a build identifying itself as “Windows Technical Preview”, numbered , in September , showing a new virtual desktop system, a notification center, and a new File Explorer icon.

On September 30, , Microsoft officially announced that Threshold would be unveiled during a media event as Windows Myerson said that Windows 10 would be Microsoft’s “most comprehensive platform ever”, providing a single, unified platform for desktop and laptop computers, tablets , smartphones, and all-in-one devices.

In regards to Microsoft naming the new operating system Windows 10 instead of Windows 9, Terry Myerson said that “based on the product that’s coming, and just how different our approach will be overall, it wouldn’t be right to call it Windows 9. We’re trying to create one platform, one eco-system that unites as many of the devices from the small embedded Internet of Things, through tablets, through phones, through PCs and, ultimately, into the Xbox.

Further details surrounding Windows 10’s consumer-oriented features were presented during another media event held on January 21, , entitled “Windows The Next Chapter”. Additional developer-oriented details surrounding the ” Universal Windows Platform ” concept were revealed and discussed during Microsoft’s Build developers’ conference. Among them were the unveiling of “Islandwood”, which provides a middleware toolchain for compiling Objective-C -based software particularly iOS to run as universal apps on Windows 10 and Windows 10 Mobile.

A port of Candy Crush Saga made using the toolkit, which shared much of its code with the iOS version, was demonstrated, alongside the announcement that the King -developed game would be bundled with Windows 10 at launch. At the Ignite conference , Microsoft employee Jerry Nixon stated that Windows 10 would be the “last version of Windows”, a statement that Microsoft confirmed was “reflective” of its view of the operating system being a “service” with new versions and updates to be released over time.

On June 1, , Microsoft announced that Windows 10 would be released on July 29, The commercials focused on the tagline “A more human way to do”, emphasizing new features and technologies supported by Windows 10 that sought to provide a more “personal” experience to users. Windows 10 makes its user experience and functionality more consistent between different classes of device, and addresses most of the shortcomings in the user interface that were introduced in Windows 8.

Windows 10 supports universal apps , an expansion of the Metro-style first introduced in Windows 8. Both interfaces include an updated Start menu which incorporates elements of Windows 7 ‘s traditional Start menu with the tiles of Windows 8.

Windows 10 also introduced the Microsoft Edge web browser , a virtual desktop system, a window and desktop management feature called Task View , support for fingerprint and face recognition login, new security features for enterprise environments, and DirectX Windows apps share code across platforms, have responsive designs that adapt to the needs of the device and available inputs, can synchronize data between Windows 10 devices including notifications, credentials, and allowing cross-platform multiplayer for games , and are distributed through the Microsoft Store rebranded from Windows Store since September The ARM version of Windows 10 allows running applications for x86 processors through bit software emulation.

On Windows 10, the Microsoft Store serves as a unified storefront for apps, video content, and eBooks. Desktop software distributed through Windows Store is packaged using the App-V system to allow sandboxing. A new iteration of the Start menu is used on the Windows 10 desktop, with a list of places and other options on the left side, and tiles representing applications on the right.

The menu can be resized, and expanded into a full-screen display, which is the default option in Tablet mode. When a window is snapped to one side of the screen, Task View appears and the user is prompted to choose a second window to fill the unused side of the screen called “Snap Assist”. Charms have been removed; their functionality in universal apps is accessed from an App commands menu on their title bar. It is accessed by clicking an icon in the notification area, or dragging from the right of the screen.

Notifications can be synced between multiple devices. Windows 10 is designed to adapt its user interface based on the type of device being used and available input methods. It offers two separate user interface modes: a user interface optimized for mouse and keyboard, and a “Tablet mode” designed for touchscreens. Users can toggle between these two modes at any time, and Windows can prompt or automatically switch when certain events occur, such as disabling Tablet mode on a tablet if a keyboard or mouse is plugged in, or when a 2-in-1 PC is switched to its laptop state.

In Tablet mode, programs default to a maximized view, and the taskbar contains a back button and hides buttons for opened or pinned programs by default; Task View is used instead to switch between programs. The full screen Start menu is used in this mode, similarly to Windows 8, but scrolls vertically instead of horizontally. Windows 10 incorporates multi-factor authentication technology based upon standards developed by the FIDO Alliance. Devices with supported cameras requiring infrared illumination, such as Intel RealSense allow users to log in with iris or face recognition , similarly to Kinect.

Devices with supported readers allow users to log in through fingerprint recognition. Support was also added for palm-vein scanning through a partnership with Fujitsu in February In , researchers demonstrated that Windows Hello could be bypassed on fully-updated Windows 10 version with a color printout of a person’s picture taken with an IR camera.

However, a PIN is not a simpler password. While passwords are transmitted to domain controllers , PINs are not. They are tied to one device, and if compromised, only one device is affected.

As such, the authentication token transmitted to the server is harder to crack. In addition, whereas weak passwords may be broken via rainbow tables , TPM causes the much-simpler Windows PINs to be resilient to brute-force attacks.

When Windows 10 was first introduced, multi-factor authentication was provided by two components: Windows Hello and Passport not to be confused with the Passport platform of Later, Passport was merged into Windows Hello. Device Guard is designed to protect against zero-day exploits , and runs inside a hypervisor so that its operation remains separated from the operating system itself.

Other features such as word wrap and transparency were also added. These functions can be disabled to revert to the legacy console if needed. The Anniversary Update added Windows Subsystem for Linux WSL , which allows the installation of a user space environment from a supported Linux distribution that runs natively on Windows. The subsystem translates Linux system calls to those of the Windows NT kernel only claims full system call compatibility as of WSL 2, included in a later Windows update.

The environment can execute the Bash shell and bit command-line programs WSL 2 also supports bit Linux programs and graphics, assuming supporting software installed, [88] and GPUs support for other uses [89].

Windows applications cannot be executed from the Linux environment, and vice versa. To reduce the storage footprint of the operating system, Windows 10 automatically compresses system files. The system can reduce the storage footprint of Windows by approximately 1.

The level of compression used is dependent on a performance assessment performed during installations or by OEMs , which tests how much compression can be used without harming operating system performance.

Furthermore, the Refresh and Reset functions use runtime system files instead, making a separate recovery partition redundant, allowing patches and updates to remain installed following the operation, and further reducing the amount of space required for Windows 10 by up to 12 GB. Windows 10 introduces Microsoft Edge , a new default web browser. It initially featured a new standards -compliant rendering engine derived from Trident , and also includes annotation tools and integration with other Microsoft platforms present within Windows Windows 10 incorporates a universal search box located alongside the Start and Task View buttons, which can be hidden or condensed into a single button.

Many of its features are a direct carryover from Windows Phone, including integration with Bing , setting reminders, a Notebook feature for managing personal information, as well as searching for files, playing music, launching applications and setting reminders or sending emails.

Microsoft Family Safety is replaced by Microsoft Family, a parental controls system that applies across Windows platforms and Microsoft online services. Users can create a designated family, and monitor and restrict the actions of users designated as children, such as access to websites, enforcing age ratings on Microsoft Store purchases, and other restrictions. The service can also send weekly e-mail reports to parents detailing a child’s computer usage. Credentials are stored in an encrypted form on Microsoft servers and sent to the devices of the selected contacts.

Passwords are not viewable by the guest user, and the guest user is not allowed to access other computers or devices on the network. Wi-Fi Sense is not usable on Universal calling and messaging apps for Windows 10 are built in as of the November update: Messaging, Skype Video, and Phone.

These offer built-in alternatives to the Skype download and sync with Windows 10 Mobile. Windows 10 provides greater integration with the Xbox ecosystem. Xbox SmartGlass is succeeded by the Xbox Console Companion formerly the Xbox app , which allows users to browse their game library including both PC and Xbox console games , and Game DVR is also available using a keyboard shortcut , allowing users to save the last 30 seconds of gameplay as a video that can be shared to Xbox Live, OneDrive, or elsewhere.

Windows 10 adds native game recording and screenshot capture ability using the newly introduced Game Bar. Users can also have the OS continuously record gameplay in the background, which then allows the user to save the last few moments of gameplay to the storage device. Windows 10 adds three new default typefaces compared to Windows 8, but omits several others. The removed typefaces are available in supplemental packs and may be added manually over a non-metered internet connection.

Windows 10 is available in five main editions for personal computing devices; the Home and Pro editions of which are sold at retail in most countries, and as pre-loaded software on new computers. Home is aimed at home users, while Pro is aimed at power users and small businesses. Each edition of Windows 10 includes all of the capabilities and features of the edition below it, and adds additional features oriented towards their market segments; for example, Pro adds additional networking and security features such as BitLocker , Device Guard, Windows Update for Business, and the ability to join a domain.

Enterprise and Education, the other editions, contain additional features aimed towards business environments, and are only available through volume licensing. As part of Microsoft’s unification strategies, Windows products that are based on Windows 10’s common platform but meant for specialized platforms are marketed as editions of the operating system, rather than as separate product lines.

An updated version of Microsoft’s Windows Phone operating system for smartphones, and also tablets, was branded as Windows 10 Mobile. On May 2, , Microsoft unveiled Windows 10 S referred to in leaks as Windows 10 Cloud , a feature-limited edition of Windows 10 which was designed primarily for devices in the education market competing, in particular, with ChromeOS netbooks , such as the Surface Laptop that Microsoft also unveiled at this time. The OS restricts software installation to applications obtained from Microsoft Store; the device may be upgraded to Windows 10 Pro for a fee to enable unrestricted software installation.

As a time-limited promotion, Microsoft stated that this upgrade would be free on the Surface Laptop until March 31, A public beta program for Windows 10 known as the Windows Insider Program began with the first publicly available preview release on October 1, Insider preview builds are aimed towards enthusiasts and enterprise users for the testing and evaluation of updates and new features. On July 29, , Microsoft officially announced that Windows 10 would be released for retail purchase as a free upgrade from earlier versions of Windows.

In comparison to previous Windows releases, which had a longer turnover between the release to manufacturing RTM and general release to allow for testing by vendors and in some cases, the development of “upgrade kits” to prepare systems for installation of the new version , an HP executive explained that because it knew Microsoft targeted the operating system for a release, the company was able to optimize its then-current and upcoming products for Windows 10 in advance of its release, negating the need for such a milestone.

The general availability build of Windows 10, numbered , was first released to Windows Insider channels for pre-launch testing on July 15, , prior to its formal release.

Windows 10 is distributed digitally through the “Media Creation Tool”, which is functionally identical to the Windows 8 online installer, and can also be used to generate an ISO image or USB install media. Changing between architectures e. Windows 10 was available in countries and languages upon its launch, and as part of efforts to “re-engage” with users in China, Microsoft also announced that it would partner with Qihoo and Tencent to help promote and distribute Windows 10 in China, and that Chinese PC maker Lenovo would provide assistance at its service centers and retail outlets for helping users upgrade to Windows Windows RT devices cannot be upgraded to Windows During its first year of availability, [] upgrade licenses for Windows 10 could be obtained at no charge for devices with a genuine license for an eligible edition of Windows 7 or 8.

This offer did not apply to Enterprise editions, as customers under an active Software Assurance SA contract with upgrade rights are entitled to obtain Windows 10 Enterprise under their existing terms. All users running non-genuine copies of Windows, and those without an existing Windows 7 or 8 license, were ineligible for this promotion; although upgrades from a non-genuine version were possible, they result in a non-genuine copy of On the general availability build of Windows 10 the original release , to activate and generate the “digital entitlement” for Windows 10, the operating system must have first been installed as an in-place upgrade.

During the free upgrade, a genuineticket. Once installed, the operating system can be reinstalled on that particular system via normal means without a product key , and the system’s license will automatically be detected via online activation – in essence, the Microsoft Product Activation Server will remember the system’s motherboard and give it the green light for product re-activation.

Since the release of the Fall Creators Update version , Microsoft decided to release multi-edition installation media, to alleviate installation and product activation issues users experienced because of accidentally installing the wrong edition of Windows The Windows Insider Preview version of Windows 10 automatically updated itself to the generally released version as part of the version progression and continues to be updated to new beta builds, as it had throughout the testing process.

Microsoft explicitly stated that Windows Insider was not a valid upgrade path for those running a version of Windows that is ineligible for the upgrade offer; although, if it was not installed with a license carried over from an in-place upgrade to 10 Insider Preview from Windows 7 or 8, the Insider Preview does remain activated as long as the user does not exit the Windows Insider program.

The offer was promoted and delivered via the “Get Windows 10” application also known as GWX , which was automatically installed via Windows Update ahead of Windows 10’s release, and activated on systems deemed eligible for the upgrade offer. Via a notification area icon, users could access an application that advertised Windows 10 and the free upgrade offer, check device compatibility, and “reserve” an automatic download of the operating system upon its release.

Microsoft said that those who reserved Windows 10 would be able to install it through GWX in a phased rollout process. The operating system could alternatively be downloaded at any time using a separate “Media Creation Tool” setup program, that allows for the creation of DVD or USB installation media.

In May , Microsoft announced that the free upgrade offer would be extended to users of assistive technologies ; however, Microsoft did not implement any means of certifying eligibility for this offer, which some outlets thereby promoted as being a loophole to fraudulently obtain a free Windows 10 upgrade.

Microsoft said that the loophole is not intended to be used in this manner. However, another loophole was found that allowed Windows 7 and 8. No word from Microsoft was given whether it will be closed [] and some outlets have continued to promote it as a free method of upgrading from the now-unsupported Windows 7. During upgrades, Windows 10 licenses are not tied directly to a product key.

Instead, the license status of the system’s current installation of Windows is migrated, and a “Digital license” known as “Digital entitlement” in version or earlier is generated during the activation process, which is bound to the hardware information collected during the process. If Windows 10 is reinstalled cleanly and there have not been any significant hardware changes since installation such as a motherboard change , the online activation process will automatically recognize the system’s digital entitlement if no product key is entered during installations.

However, unique product keys are still distributed within retail copies of Windows As with previous non-volume-licensed variants of Windows, significant hardware changes will invalidate the digital entitlement, and require Windows to be re-activated.

Unlike previous versions of Windows, Windows Update does not allow the selective installation of updates, and all updates including patches, feature updates, and driver software are downloaded and installed automatically. Users can only choose whether their system will reboot automatically to install updates when the system is inactive, or be notified to schedule a reboot.

Version allows wired Ethernet networks to be designated as metered, but Windows may still download certain updates while connected to a metered network.

In version , by installing the August security update and later versions, driver and non-security updates pushed via Windows Update that are considered optional are no longer automatically downloaded and installed in their devices.

Updates can cause compatibility or other problems; a Microsoft troubleshooter program allows bad updates to be uninstalled. Under the Windows end-user license agreement , users consent to the automatic installation of all updates, features and drivers provided by the service, and implicitly consent “without any additional notice” to the possibility of features being modified or removed.

Windows Update can also use a peer-to-peer system for distributing updates; by default, users’ bandwidth is used to distribute previously downloaded updates to other users, in combination with Microsoft servers. Users can instead choose to only use peer-to-peer updates within their local area network. The original release of Windows 10 receives mainstream support for five years after its original release, followed by five years of extended support, but this is subject to conditions.

Microsoft stated that these devices would no longer receive feature updates, but would still receive security updates through January The following table collects current status of the aforementioned updating and support of different branches of Windows Windows 10 is often described by Microsoft as being a “service”, as it receives regular “feature updates” that contain new features and other updates and fixes. For example, version was released in September the ninth month of This was changed with the 20H2 release where “MM” represents the half of the year in which the update was released, for example H1 for the first half and H2 for the second half.

Before version , the pace at which feature updates are received by devices was dependent on which release channel was used. Each build of Windows 10 is supported for 18 months after its original release. Once a stable build is certified by Microsoft and its partners as being suitable for broad deployment, the build is then released on the “Semi-Annual Channel” formerly “Current Branch for Business”, or “CBB” , which is supported by the Pro and Enterprise editions of Windows The Windows Insider branches receive unstable builds as they are released; it is divided into two channels, “Dev” which receives new builds immediately after their release , and “Beta” whose releases are slightly delayed from their “Dev” release.

For this reason, it excludes Cortana, Microsoft Store, and all bundled Universal Windows Platform apps including but not limited to Microsoft Edge, hence these builds ship only with Internet Explorer as browser. In July , Microsoft announced changes in the terminology for Windows branches as part of its effort to unify the update cadence with that of Office ProPlus and Windows Server In February , Microsoft announced changes again in delivering updates in beginning of release of version : a single SAC will be released and SAC-T will be retired, and users are no longer able to switch to different channels.

Instead, these updates can be deferred from 30 to 90 days, or depending how the device was configured to deferred the updates. Feature updates prior to version were distributed solely as an in-place upgrade installation, requiring the download of a complete operating system package approximately 3.

Unlike previous builds, version was designed primarily as an update rollup version of , which focused primarily on minor feature additions and enhancements. For upgrades to from , a new delivery method was used where its changes were delivered as part of the monthly cumulative update, but were left in a dormant state until the update “enablement” patch is installed. The full upgrade process was still used for those using builds prior to In May , Microsoft unveiled Fluent Design System previously codenamed “Project Neon” , a revamp of Microsoft Design Language 2 that will include guidelines for the designs and interactions used within software designed for all Windows 10 devices and platforms.

The new design language will include the more prominent use of motion, depth, and translucency effects. Microsoft stated that the implementation of this design language would be performed over time, and it had already started to implement elements of it in Creators Update and Fall Creators Update.

On December 7, , Microsoft announced that, as part of a partnership with Qualcomm, it planned to introduce support for running Win32 software on ARM architecture with a bit x86 processor emulator, in Terry Myerson stated that this move would enable the production of Qualcomm Snapdragon -based Windows devices with cellular connectivity and improved power efficiency over Intel-compatible devices, and still capable of running the majority of existing Windows software unlike the previous Windows RT , which was restricted to Windows Store apps.

Microsoft is initially targeting this project towards laptops. In August , Microsoft began testing changes to its handling of the user interface on convertible devices—downplaying the existing “Tablet Mode” option in favor of presenting the normal desktop with optimizations for touch when a keyboard is not present, such as increasing the space between taskbar buttons and displaying the virtual keyboard when text fields are selected.

In April , the ability to run Linux applications using a graphical user interface , such as Audacity , directly in Windows, was introduced as a preview. The basic hardware requirements to install Windows 10 were initially the same as those for Windows 8 and Windows 8.

As of the May update, the minimum disk space requirement has been increased to 32 GB. In addition, on new installations, Windows permanently reserves up to 7 GB of disk space in order to ensure proper installation of future feature updates. The bit variants require a CPU that supports certain instructions. Some pre-built devices may be described as “certified” by Microsoft.

Unlike Windows 8, OEMs are no longer required to make Secure Boot settings user-configurable, meaning that devices may optionally be locked to run only Microsoft-signed operating systems. Windows 10 version and later do not support Intel Clover Trail system-on-chips, per Microsoft’s stated policy of only providing updates for devices during their OEM support period.

Starting with Windows 10 version , Microsoft will require new OEM devices to use bit processors, and will therefore cease the distribution of x86 bit variants of Windows 10 via OEM channels. The bit variants of Windows 10 will remain available via non-OEM channels, and Microsoft will continue to “[provide] feature and security updates on these devices”. The maximum amount of RAM that Windows 10 can support varies depending on the product edition and the processor architecture.

Windows 10 supports up to two physical processors. Windows 10 received generally positive reviews, with most reviewers considering it superior to its predecessor Windows 8. The Edge browser was praised for its performance, although it was not in a feature-complete state at launch. While considering them a “great idea in principle”, concerns were shown for Microsoft’s focus on the universal app ecosystem:.

It’s by no means certain that developers are going to flock to Windows 10 from iOS and Android simply because they can convert their apps easily. It may well become a no-brainer for them, but at the moment a conscious decision is still required. Engadget was similarly positive, noting that the upgrade process was painless and that Windows 10’s user interface had balanced aspects of Windows 8 with those of previous versions with a more mature aesthetic.

Cortana’s always-on voice detection was considered to be its “true strength”, also citing its query capabilities and personalization features, but noting that it was not as pre-emptive as Google Now.

Windows 10’s stock applications were praised for being improved over their Windows 8 counterparts, and for supporting windowed modes. The Xbox app was also praised for its Xbox One streaming functionality, although recommending its use over a wired network because of inconsistent quality over Wi-Fi. In conclusion, it was argued that “Windows 10 delivers the most refined desktop experience ever from Microsoft, and yet it’s so much more than that. It’s also a decent tablet OS, and it’s ready for a world filled with hybrid devices.

And, barring another baffling screwup, it looks like a significant step forward for mobile. Heck, it makes the Xbox One a more useful machine. On the other hand Ars Technica panned the new Tablet mode interface for removing the charms and app switching, making the Start button harder to use by requiring users to reach for the button on the bottom-left rather than at the center of the screen when swiping with a thumb, and for making application switching less instantaneous through the use of Task View.

Microsoft Edge was praised for being “tremendously promising”, and “a much better browser than Internet Explorer ever was”, but criticized it for its lack of functionality on-launch. In conclusion, contrasting Windows 8 as being a “reliable” platform albeit consisting of unfinished concepts, Windows 10 was considered “the best Windows yet”, and was praised for having a better overall concept in its ability to be “comfortable and effective” across a wide array of form factors, but that it was buggier than previous versions of Windows were on-launch.

Critics have noted that Windows 10 heavily emphasizes freemium services, and contains various advertising facilities. Some outlets have considered these to be a hidden “cost” of the free upgrade offer.

Due to the high system requirements of its Windows 10’s successor Windows 11 , some critics have cited Windows 10 being better than its successor and have warned not to switch to Windows 11 given its high system requirement despite very limited new features compared to Windows Up to August , Windows 10 usage was increasing, with it then plateauing , [] while eventually in , it became more popular than Windows 7 [] [] though Windows 7 was still more used in some countries in Asia and Africa in As of March [update] , the operating system is running on over a billion devices, reaching the goal set by Microsoft two years after the initial deadline.

Twenty-four hours after it was released, Microsoft announced that over 14 million devices were running Windows According to StatCounter, Windows 10 overtook Windows 8. For one week in late November , Windows 10 overtook first rank from Windows 7 in the United States, before losing it again. In mid-January , Windows 10 had a slightly higher global market share than Windows 7, [] with it noticeably more popular on weekends, [] while popularity varies widely by region, e.

Windows 10 was then still behind in Africa [] and far ahead in some other regions e. Windows 10 Home is permanently set to download all updates automatically, including cumulative updates, security patches, and drivers, and users cannot individually select updates to install or not.

Concerns were raised that because of these changes, users would be unable to skip the automatic installation of updates that are faulty or cause issues with certain system configurations—although build upgrades will also be subject to public beta testing via Windows Insider program. An example of such a situation occurred prior to the general release of the operating system, when an Nvidia graphics card driver that was automatically pushed to Windows 10 users via Windows Update caused issues that prevented the use of certain functions, or prevented their system from booting at all.

Criticism was also directed towards Microsoft’s decision to no longer provide specific details on the contents of cumulative updates for Windows Some users reported that during the installation of the November upgrade, some applications particularly utility programs such as CPU-Z and Speccy were automatically uninstalled during the upgrade process, and some default programs were reset to Microsoft-specified defaults such as Photos app, and Microsoft Edge for PDF viewing , both without warning.

Further issues were discovered upon the launch of the Anniversary Update “Redstone” , including a bug that caused some devices to freeze but addressed by cumulative update KB, released on August 31, , [] [] and that fundamental changes to how Windows handles webcams had caused many to stop working. A Gartner analyst felt that Windows 10 Pro was becoming increasingly inappropriate for use in enterprise environments because of support policy changes by Microsoft, including consumer-oriented upgrade lifecycle length, and only offering extended support for individual builds to Enterprise and Education editions of Windows Critics have acknowledged that Microsoft’s update and testing practices had been affecting the overall quality of Windows In particular, it was pointed out that Microsoft’s internal testing departments had been prominently affected by a major round of layoffs undertaken by the company in Microsoft relies primarily on user testing and bug reports via the Windows Insider program which may not always be of sufficient quality to identify a bug , as well as correspondence with OEMs and other stakeholders.

In the wake of the known folder redirection data loss bug in the version , it was pointed out that bug reports describing the issue had been present on the Feedback Hub app for several months prior to the public release. Following the incident, Microsoft updated Feedback Hub so that users may specify the severity of a particular bug report. When announcing the resumption of ‘s rollout, Microsoft stated that it planned to be more transparent in its handling of update quality in the future, through a series of blog posts that will detail its testing process and the planned development of a “dashboard” that will indicate the rollout progress of future updates.

Microsoft was criticized for the tactics that it used to promote its free upgrade campaign for Windows 10, including adware -like behaviors, [] using deceptive user interfaces to coax users into installing the operating system, [] [] [] [] downloading installation files without user consent, [] [] and making it difficult for users to suppress the advertising and notifications if they did not wish to upgrade to In September , it was reported that Microsoft was triggering automatic downloads of Windows 10 installation files on all compatible Windows 7 or 8.

Automating this task can help with increasing data load. To ensure patient confidentiality throughout the full pharmacovigilance process, the narratives should be de-identified early in the process.

Person names—one of the more common identifiers in case narratives—can lead to in- direct identification of patients but are challenging to recognise in free text. Objective: To develop and evaluate a method for automated de-identification of names in case narratives.

Methods: We use an ensemble of BERT [2]—a state-of-the-art language model using deep-neural network—combined with hand-engineered rules for detecting names. Our model is trained on i2b2 deidentification challenge data [3] combined with unprocessed data from the Yellow Card system[4] provided by the MHRA.

Because names are rare in the Yellow Card data, the training dataset is prepared using active learning through an independent model.

Model testing is done on a separate, manually annotated dataset. Evaluation of the deidentification is guided by: 1 how often clinically relevant information is removed and 2 how identifiable the narratives that the model fails to completely de-identify are.

We define three categories of identifiability: a Directly identifiable, where subject identification is very likely with the leaked information e. Results: Out of the 71 narratives with names and initials, only 12 contained occurrences missed by the system. Manual evaluation found only one directly and one indirectly identifiable narrative due to leaks.

It should be noted that the leaked direct identifier was a foreign, non-English name. A single narrative may contain multiple occurrences of names, the table presents results per occurrence. Conclusion: Automated de-identification of names is possible without compromising clinically relevant information.

Our method can recognise and mask a vast majority of names and most initials while leaving most of the information untouched. Qualitative evaluation shows that the rare leaks that occur tend not to make cases identifiable. Clinical stories are necessary for drug safety. Clin Med. J Biomed Inform. Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency.

The Yellow Card scheme: guidance for healthcare professionals, patients and the public [Internet]. Introduction: Metronidazole is a nitroimidazole antibacterial drug that is mostly used to treat anaerobic bacteria and protozoa infections. The adverse side effects of metronidazole include gastrointestinal upset, metallic taste, urticaria, headache, peripheral neuropathy.

Metronidazole-induced pancreatitis has been rarely described in the literature so far. Objective: We report a rare case of an acute pancreatitis associated with metronidazole which occurred as a result of a prescription error.

Methods: This case was reported in February to The National Centre of Pharmacovigilance and evaluated according to the updated French method of causality assessment.

Results: A year-old male patient with a past medical history of chronic viral hepatitis B treated with entecavir since , presented to the surgery department with an acute onset of a severe epigastric pain radiating through to the back associated with hepatic colic with nausea and vomiting.

On exam, he had severe epigastric tenderness. Relative negatives in the history included, no lithiasis, no known drug allergies, and no alcohol consumption. Patient symptoms and lipase improved within 3 days after metronidazole withdrawl and initiation of supportive care. Conclusion: The likelihood of metronidazole as the incriminating agent was likely in front of a suggestive delay and favorable outcome after the drug withdrawl.

It was suggested a the possible dose-response mechanism between metronidazole use and occurrence of pancreatitis, and this case draw attention to the possible acute pancreatitis associated with metronidazole due to a prescription error. Metronidazole-associated pancreatitis. Introduction: The possibilities of using current scientific principles to create tools to help give efficiency and help to nurses thereby reducing stress and the potential for errors.

Also enable patients to maintain independence and less outside contact as technology is used to expand the reach of telehealth. Solutions will be adaptable for independent use by the sight, hearing and mentally challenged. The 1st hurdle is to make it easier for patients and staff to accomplish what they have to do safely and consistently.

Objective: To simplify the taking of all drugs and supplements using IoT technology. This a paradigm shift from the many efforts to mitigate the challenges of the many aspects of drug delivery. Here medication is always kept in the labelled, legal safety of the original dispensed container until consumed.

Safety concerns of pre-pouring will no longer exist. Authentic real-tine medication usage data will be available.

ISoP and other safety management organizations will be able to execute many tasks with precision. Methods: The innovation is a multi-compartment device that holds a medication container in each compartment.

The device has a display that resides in the lid or may be at the front of a drawer type or wall mounted unit. The concept of assigned location forms the basis for these innovations. Stored instructions for many aspects of care and follow-up resides in the device and will be communicated via the display appropriately.

It can be connected to a larger display, cellphone or other mobile device. Medicine containers are scanned to capture dosing instructions. The assigned location lights up. The container is placed within the compartment and receives an alert at dosing times. The compartment stays lit until the nurse picks up and replaces the container. Video may be activated. Biometric access ensures identity and pill count and time are automatically recorded. Results: Feasibility indicates that the must touch to silent feature is a powerful feature that aids adherence.

Also the timing methods that ensures safe dosing separation helps to ensure all doses are taken in a given day even if late taking a dose. Relative time rather than time of day dosing is used. Conclusion: Believed to be unsolvable, these discoveries will open the door to the science of individual ingestion by effortlessly notifying and guiding individuals in the consumption and effects of medicines and other items for a safer and healthier life experience.

Powerful data will be generated for use by ISoP. Introduction: The Summary of Product Characteristics for Ceftriaxone states that as with all beta-lactam antibacterial agents, serious and occasionally fatal hypersensitivity reactions have been reported [1]. However, the frequency is stated as unknown.

Out of 46 reports to Ceftriaxone in the Uganda ADR database, 7 of these are of anaphylactic reactions, and one of them was fatal for the paediatric patient. It is not clear in cases of injurious or fatal drug effects who should bear the liability.

Objective: To present a case study of a successful legal resolution of a fatal medication error to Ceftriaxone with the involvement of the regulator. Methods: This is a retrospective case report. Results: A one-and-a-half-year-old male child was diagnosed with septicaemia with diarrhoea and admitted to a hospital. Day one treatment with Ceftriaxone was stopped due to a reaction of difficulty in breathing. A switch to Ciprofloxacin happened and the patient began to improve. Due to a weekend staff shift change, the change to ciprofloxacin was not noted resulting in re-administration of ceftriaxone and anaphylaxis that caused the death of the patient despite all efforts to resuscitate.

National Drug Authority performed a causality assessment of the serious adverse event and found that administration of Ceftriaxone was related to the outcome of death. However, it was noted that this was a medication error with no malice aforethought and therefore the health care provider was not liable.

Publication of these results can aid in encouraging reporting rates among patients and providers. Ceftriaxone 1g Powder for solution for injection. Accessed March 9, General characteristics, economic burden, causative drugs and medical errors associated with medical damage litigation involving severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions in China. Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics. Liability associated with prescribing medications.

Primary care companion to the Journal of clinical psychiatry. Bhatt AD. Drug-related problems and adverse drug events: negligence, litigation and prevention. The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India. PMID: Physicians’ liability for adverse drug reactions.

Southern Medical Journal. Introduction: Pharmacotherapeutic Follow-up is a professional practice focused on identification, prevention and resolution of Drug-Related Problems and the causes or errors that originate these problems in patients [1—4]. Methods: Clinical pharmacists perform Pharmacotherapeutic Follow-up of hospitalized patients through three evaluations: drug reconciliation, pharmacotherapeutic profile and drug prescription suitability, identifying Drug-Related Problems and medication errors and recording their activities in two databases: the first consists of the evaluation that is carried out weekly and the second corresponds to the pharmaceutical interventions; these bases are validated monthly with each other.

For this study, data is taken from both databases in the period from June to December and the risk that was reduced by accepted pharmaceutical interventions is calculated. Results: In the review of the database of activities carried out, a progressive increase in the number of evaluations done by clinical pharmacists was observed in drug reconciliation, pharmacotherapeutic profile and drug prescription suitability, identifying discrepancies, medication errors and Problems Related to Medications.

In the database of pharmaceutical interventions, a significant increase in the risk that was reduced associated with the interventions carried out and accepted was observed; as it can be identified in figure 1, which ranges from Conclusion: The pharmaceutical interventions allowed to improve the prescriptions and with it, identify Problems Related to Medications and medication errors before causing harm to the patient, making the drugs safer.

Farmacia Hospitalaria, 37 1 , 59— Introduction: Some side effects of anticholinergic drugs can be relatively harmless such as dry mouth or constipation, but in some cases, they can manifest themselves in the form of heart arrhythmias or as worsening of dementia or delirium.

The elderly are more prone to show anticholinergic effects, due to a progressive decrease in acetylcholine levels, and are often also treated with drug polytherapy with additive effects which leads to an anticholinergic cognitive burden ACB [1—4].

Objective: Verify whether it is possible to identify patients who may experience an adverse reaction due to ACB in real clinical practice through a pharmacological investigation, identify which drugs are the possible cause and re-evaluate the therapy to prevent the onset of adverse reactions.

Clinical analysis was performed by assigning a score of 1 to each adverse event attributable to ACB in the central nervous system, mouth, eyes, heart, gastrointestinal tract, bladder, and skin. Results: In 34 patients, the total number of drugs prescribed was with an average of 8. In these patients, the major drugs responsible for elevated ACB were quetiapine, chlorpromazine, and paroxetine, all three with a value of 3.

The 5 patients also showed clinical signs of ACB. Conclusion: Computerized determination of CBA was helpful in preventing adverse reactions, identifying which drugs are responsible for adverse reactions and modifying therapy to avoid the occurrence of adverse events. Drug therapy analysis is useful in conjunction with clinical evaluation and can be a valuable tool used in conjunction with tools such as Mini Mental Status.

A preliminary study of anticholinergic burden and relationship to a quality of life indicator, engagement in activities, in nursing home residents with dementia. J Am Med Dir Assoc. Epub Jan 9. Epub Jun J Am Geriatr Soc. Epub Aug J Nutr Health Aging. Introduction: Presence of a strong medication safety system can prevent many potential medication errors MEs by enforcing safety monitoring on the ordering, prescription, preparation, and administration of medicines [1].

Furthermore, a well established medication safety system can solve many causes of communication problems which account for over half of all causes associated with medication errors through its electronic based system. Unfortunately, many of the existing electronic health records EHRs were designed for purposes of medical billing rather than for medical care, resulting in challenges for using the recorded data for safety data capturing. Moreover, commercially available electronic prescribing and computerized physician order entry systems are cost-prohibitive for many health organization, especially non-profit ones.

In a previous research project, Egypt Chapter of International Society of Pharmacovigilance ISoP was engaged in developing such system in the hospital of Palestine Red Crescent Society PRCS in Cairo to support identifying MEs that were experienced by refugees through remodeling and adding new features to the existing hospital management system.

Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of introducing internally low-cost electronic prescription system in reducing the frequency of MEs of different types.

Methods: A pre- and post-intervention study was conducted to compare the frequency of MEs before and after replacing the traditionally used paper-based system with an internal electronic-based system in hospital setting. MEs were collected by reviewing randomized medical records at base line and after one year of introducing this electronic-based system.

More focus was given to medical records of elderly patients and emergency ward. The prescribing errors, transcribing errors, dispensing errors, administration errors were investigated. Results: We analyzed paper-based prescriptions at baseline and paper-based and electronic prescriptions at one year of follow-up.

The errors were Conclusion: The adoption of internal electronic prescription systems was effective in markedly reducing the frequency of MEs compared to the paper-based system in a low-resource setting where the expense on complex commercial electronic solutions are burden for institutions.

Elhawary, M. Drug Saf 45, 97—99 Introduction: In spite of its large use, a conspicuous number of paracetamol adverse reaction reports have been recently collected, due to overdosage or posologic mistakes. A recent metanalysis by BMC Med Inform Decis Mak [1] has inserted paracetamol in the list of the six drugs causing severe ototoxicity and a pharmacovigilance retrospective study [2] has highlighted that it induced 1. Another recent review on the analgesic standard doses of paracetamol has demonstrated its grade of toxicity, at the maximum prescribed dose [3].

Methods: A survey of 7 questions on standard dosage, dose adjustment and antidotes to paracetamol overdose was submitted to 36 health professionals nurses, pharmacists, oncologists, hematologists, surgeons in the Cancer Institute of Bari. The answers were collected and charted in diagrams, in order to soon identify critical evidences. Conclusion: The collecting data have demonstrated the clinical need to manage accurately old and apparently well-known drugs to grant a controlled clinical risk in hospitals.

Pharmacovigilance is a duty for health professionals and the awareness that also old drugs can be causes of toxicity is a substantial starting point for safety of care. Hyunah Shin, Suehyun Lee. Saudi Pharm. Paracetamol: not as safe as we thought? A systematic literature review of observational studies.

Ann Rheum Dis Mar;75 3 —9. Paracetamol: mechanism of action, applications and safety concern. Acta Pol Pharm. Jan—Feb ;71 1 — Eur J Pain. Introduction: High interest in the last two years was globally put by Health Authorities on the recording, coding, and reporting of medication errors to ensure the safety and effectiveness of the use of medicines and to provide reliable information to healthcare professionals and patients.

Medical coding is a prerequisite for efficient, effective, and reproducible data outputs. Methods: A sample of medication error coding results was assessed for accuracy and consistency of MedDRA coding and identification of main types of coding errors. Results: One-third of the records could not be assessed due to incomplete or unclear verbatims.

In one-third, code assignments were correct, but another third of the sample was not adequately coded. Most frequent coding errors corresponded to vague PT assignments, while more detailed information was available for a more precise coding. This observation is similar to the EudraVigilance database, where some of the most assigned MedDRA terms for medication errors also represent vague concepts.

Conclusion: These findings indicate that understanding of medication error documentation and assessment and of MedDRA content and coding guidelines need to be reinforced. Introduction: Pediatric intoxications represent one of the most common causes of harm to children under the age of six and the fourth leading cause of death in developing countries [1—2].

Data collection and systematic analysis of intoxication cases is of fundamental importance to gain a greater knowledge of toxic domestic, environmental and pharmacological agents [4—5].

Gaslini for the period from January to December All poisoning were retrieved from the Hospital Central Database using the International Classification of Disease ICD 9 classification code system, and subsequently entered into a local database for data management. Descriptive statistics were undertaken. Our analysis included therefore poisoned patient cases, 70 were from females and 74 from males, with a median age of 3 years old.

Out of the total of accesses, Poisoning severity and the need for hospitalization have also been investigated. Conclusion: Implementation of high-performance data collection systems in the Emergency Department could be decisive in guiding clinical choices.

This study has gathered data on pediatric poisonings in a regional reality in the absence of a Poison Center. Although preliminary, these findings may guide for the improvement of the surveillance system of intoxications in pediatrics. The burden of unintentional injuries among the under-five population in South Asia. Acta Paediatr.

Sistema informativo nazionale per la sorveglianza delle esposizioni pericolose e delle intossicazioni: casi rilevati nel Decimo rapporto annuale. Surveillance of toxic exposures: the pilot experience of the Poison Control Centers of Milan, Pavia and Bergamo in Ann Ist Super Sanita. Early detection of illness associated with poisonings of public health significance. Ann Emerg Med. Introduction: While electronic health record EHR is a potentially valuable resource of adverse drug reactions ADRs [1,2], these ADRs are frequently not registered, registered in the wrong place or only registered using free-text entry [3,4].

Free text data cannot be managed and analyzed with mainstream software tools, but this is possible with text mining TM tools. Methods: In phase I, the previous rule-based algorithm was translated to a R-algorithm and improved it with the help of previous mentioned issues. Conclusion: The developed R-algorithm identified ADRs, however further research is required to extrapolate the algorithm and to combine it with clinical decision support systems to bring the data back to the physician to increase ADR registration.

Data processing and text mining technologies on electronic medical records: A review. J Healthc Eng. Text mining applied to electronic medical records: A literature review. Reasons for discontinuation of medication during hospitalization and documentation thereof: a descriptive study of geriatric and internal medicine patients. Recurrence of adverse drug reactions following inappropriate re-prescription: Better documentation, availability of information and monitoring are needed.

Also know as multicompartment compliance aids, they are devices that allow for medicines to be dispensed into compartments which are separated by days of the week and times of the day.

Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted on four hundred and eighty-seven adult patients’ hospital admission episodes. Medications most frequently implicated were antidepressants, ACE inhibitors, analgesics, and antipsychotics. The study highlights that inline with published evidence 5 , the cohort of patients more at risk of DRPs are the older population.

Older patients frequently use MDS and are already at risk of DRPs as they frequently have multi-morbidities and polypharmacy 6. This study has highlighted that ongoing measures should be considered to reduce DRPs such as deprescribing and regular medication reviews. It also highlights the importance of engaging with patients and carers to increase medication education and awareness.

Hospitalisations caused by adverse drug reactions ADR : a meta-analysis of observational studies. Pharmacy World and Science. Oswald K. Pill organisers could put older patients at risk of adverse events. The Pharmaceutical Journal. Drug safety. Polypharmacy and falls in older people: Balancing evidence-based medicine against falls risk.

Postgrad Med. Introduction: Amid the recent outbreak, the quality of medical care provided to COVID Coronavirus Disease patients has been deeply impacted as a result of organizational limitations and insufficient medical resources.

This complex situation was amplified by additional factors that include the widespread use of experimental drugs, the lack of detailed guidelines and recommendations, and workload increase. Consequently, COVID patients became more vulnerable to medication errors and adverse drug events, especially in the intensive care units ICUs [1,2].

Objective: To describe the pharmaceutical interventions PIs carried out by a clinical pharmacist and to evaluate their clinical impact. PIs were registered by the pharmacist using the French Society of Clinical Pharmacy’s PI sheet, and their clinical impact was assessed using Hatoum scale 0-to Data of a two-month period, from October to December , were analyzed using Excel.

A median age of Conclusion: The active role of clinical pharmacists in the ICU is well established in the literature. Our study underlines the necessity of clinical pharmacy services in the COVID ICU, which helps in preventing drug errors and providing optimal care to this sensitive population. Health human resources challenges during COVID pandemic; evidence of a qualitative study in a developing country.

On-ward participation of clinical pharmacists in a Chinese intensive care unit for patients with COVID A retrospective, observational study. Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy ; 1: — Introduction: Antiretroviral Therapy is recommended for all persons living with HIV to reduce morbidity and mortality and to prevent the transmission of the virus to others. Medications are offered by health services throughout the world, but their use comes with a substantial growing risk of harm [1].

This includes Medication Errors which is any preventable event that may cause or lead to inappropriate medication use or patient harm while the medication is in the control of the healthcare professional, patient, or consumer [2]. They are among the most common medical errors, harming at least 1. Objective: To establish the number of medication errors reported due to look-alike Antiretroviral Therapy amongst adult clients over a 12month period at Mbagathi Hospital Comprehensive Care Center Pharmacy.

Methods: A survey was carried out over a 12month period between January and January to establish the number of medication errors reported due to look-alike Antiretroviral Therapy amongst Adult clients. The results of the study were captured in the medication error reporting forms at the Comprehensive Care Center Pharmacy and in a table indicating the error.

Results: Over the 12month period, 2 medication errors were reported due to look-alike Antiretroviral Therapy. The medication errors reported occurred after two adult clients were dispensed with the wrong medication due to look-alike medications that were stored next to each other on the dispensing shelf.

Conclusion: Medication errors were found to have occurred over the 12month survey period. The study was able to confirm that medication errors can occur when staff lack proper training on how to store and dispense look-alike medications. It is therefore important to continuously train staff on appropriate storage and dispensing practices to avoid these medication errors and to have standard operating procedures on how to store and dispense look-alike medications.

After the medication error incident we proceeded to rearranged all the look-alike medications ensuring that they were not stored in close proximity to each other and we also printed bold labels for all the medications on the shelves. Polypharmacy and medicines optimisation. Making it safe and sound. About Medication Errors. Accessed on Preventing Medication Errors: Quality chasm series.

Introduction: Neuromuscular diseases NMDs involve injury or dysfunction of peripheral nerves or muscles, with pain being a significant problem [1]. Paracetamol is used in patients with NMDs. Ingestion of a licensed dose is not considered an overdose [2]. However, this may not be true in some patients of NMDs with their different pharmacogenetics and phenotypes [3].

Objective: To collate evidence that in patients with NMDs, therapeutic dose of paracetamol might be an overdose leading to toxicity. Exclusion criteria were overdose, risk factors, and liver disease. Case reports were critically appraised [4]. Association was assessed using Bradford Hill criteria [5].

Results: Eight case reports qualified: 6 males, 2 females; 6 had muscular dystrophies, 2 spinal muscular atrophies; median Q 1 —Q 3 age Time to onset of clinical manifestations and abnormal liver function tests LFT was 4.

Paracetamol serum level was After stopping paracetamol 6 patients recovered 5 with N-acetylcysteine NAC , 1 without. Two patients died, both had been treated with NAC. Liver injury in all cases was severe and direct intrinsic. Association was causal and probable. Though we cannot exclude a possible role of concomitant drugs, the causality between paracetamol and liver injury appears probable. Conclusion: Patients with NMDs are at increased risk of toxic serum levels and severe liver injury following therapeutic doses of paracetamol.

Vigilance and personalised medicine based on pharmacogenomics can prevent this medication error. Therapeutic recommendations need to be revised. Joint Formulary Committee. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. Methodological quality of case series studies: an introduction to the JBI critical appraisal tool. JBI Evid Synth. Hill AB. The Environment and Disease: Association or Causation? Proc R Soc Med.

Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences. Drug-induced liver injury DILI : current status and future directions for drug development and the post-market setting. Switzerland; Introduction: Intoxications by ingestion is the second most common domestic accident in children after traumas. They constitute a serious problem in pediatrics, because of their frequency and difficulties of management.

Objective: The aim of our study is to determine the incidence of voluntary intoxications in children, as well as the different toxic agents involved and the morbidity and mortality related to these intoxications. Methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study of voluntary intoxications suicide attempts admitted to the emergency department and managed at the Rabat Children’s Hospital over a period of 5 months, from November 1, to April 1, Results: During the study period, 79 children were admitted to the emergency department for ingestion of toxic products, The use of drugs was reported in The distribution according to the nature of the toxic agent used in the suicide attempt is as follows In Conclusion: Pediatric toxicology is a particular entity because of the frequently accidental intoxication character and which can become voluntary in children between 12 and 15 years old by using commonly used drugs and other toxic agents.

The best measure will be prevention, which has proved to be effective on a large level. Bourrillon A. Rkain S. El Kettani, N. Rhalem, BSD. Introduction: Medication Errors MEs have been assessed by the criterion of whether they caused adverse drug reactions ADR which could have been prevented [].

There are problems with this approach. ADRs are assessed when many parameters of the preceding medication are known. In retrospect, it is always possible to conclude that the ADR could have been prevented had certain actions been different. Objective: To explore how the ME-criterion preventability could be replaced by a more appropriate criterion and which additional aspects of MEs should be assessed.

Methods: Literature review and proposal of a new approach with relevant examples of ADR cases. Some more suggestions were made: First, to distinguish errors in deciding about a medication from errors in implementing the decision.

Second, to distinguish between extent and seriousness of an ME: Aspects of ME-seriousness are how severe an ADR following the ME was, how much more severe or likely—compared to the typical severity or expected frequency—the ADR became, how far the medication deviated from established standards and which options were available to anticipate and minimise the risk.

Third, to classify MEs according to whether their faultiness is continuous or binary. A scheme to classify MEs and cases are presented. Focusing on the preventability of adverse drug reactions. Hosp Pharm. Drug Saf ; 25 14 : — Drug Saf ; 33 11 : — European Medicines Agency. Good practice guide medication error recording coding reporting assessment europa. Introduction: Since March 13, , Tunisia has started its vaccination campaign.

In addition, the Ministry of Health has organized national mass vaccination days to accelerate the vaccination process. The National Centre of Pharmacovigilance, in collaboration with the Primary Health Care Direction, is charged with monitoring and managing adverse events following immunization AEFI that included vaccination errors. Objective: Our work aims to describe the type and the frequency of these errors in order to prevent their occurrence.

Methods: We conducted an observational study from the onset of the vaccination campaign on March 13, , to September 29, We collected vaccine errors through the different notification sources used by the National Centre of Pharmacovigilance in Tunisia. We have listed vaccine errors through Vigibase national reports.

We categorized the error reports on the basis of the vaccine error type described by the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention CDC. Results: During this period, a total of 8. Conclusion: Most vaccination misuses are related to technical errors.


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Objective: To present a case study of a successful legal resolution of a fatal medication error to Ceftriaxone with the involvement of the regulator. This approach is based on intuitionistic fuzzy set theory and it is known as the intuitionistic fuzzy C means clustering. Journal of Forecasting. Target Oncol ; — In conclusion, it was argued that “Windows 10 delivers the most refined desktop experience ever from Microsoft, and yet it’s so much more than that. Engadget was similarly positive, noting that the upgrade process was painless and that Windows 10’s user interface had balanced aspects of Windows 8 with those of previous versions with a more mature aesthetic.❿

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